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Cnemiornis calcitrans Owen, 1866:396

South Island goose, Flightless goose

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Cnemiornis minor Forbes, 1892:185

 

Conservation Status

Extinct

 

Distribution

South Island, New Zealand

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

Above: South Island Goose. Cnemiornis calcitrans. From the series: Extinct Birds of New Zealand., 2004, Masterton, by Paul Martinson. Purchased 2006. © Te Papa. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Te Papa (2006-0010-1/27)

 

References

Original scientific description:

Owen, R. (1866). On Dinornis (part X): containing a description of part of the skeleton of a flightless bird indicative of a new genus and species ([i]Cnemiornis calcitrans[/i], Ow.). Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 5: 395-404.

 

Other references:

Chapman, B. (1986). Bone remains in Kings Cave, Cave, South Canterbury. N.Z. Speleological Bulletin 7(135): 440-444.

Clark, Geoffrey R., Petchey, Peter, McGlone, Matthew S. and Bristow, Peter. (1996). Faunal and Floral Remains from Earnscleugh Cave, Central Otago, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 26(3): 363-380. [Abstract]

Forbes, H. O. (1892). Preliminary notice of additions to the extinct avifauna of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the New Zealand Institute 24: 185-189.

Gill, Brian and Martinson, Paul. (1991). New Zealand's extinct birds. New Zealand: Random Century.

Hector, J. (1873). On Cnemiornis calcitrans, showing its affinity to the Natatores. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. [incomplete reference]

Hector, J. (1874). On Cnemiornis calcitrans, Owen, showing its affinity to the Lamellirostrate Natatores. Trans. Proc. N. Z. Inst. 6: 76-84.

Holdaway, Richard N., Worthy, Trevor H. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2001). A working list of breeding bird species of the New Zealand region at first human contact. New Zealand Journal of Zoology 28: 119-187.

Livezey, Bradley C. (1989). Phylogenetic relationships of several subfossil anseriformes of New Zealand. Occasional Papers of the Museum of Natural History, The University of Kansas Lawrence, Kansas 128: 1-25.

Owen, R. (1875). On Dinornis (part XX): containing a restoration of the skeleton of Cnemiornis calcitrans, Ow., with remarks on its affinities in the lamellirostral group.Trans. Zool. Soc. Lond. 9: 253-292.

Rawlence, N. J., Wood, J. R., Scofield, R. P., Fraser, C. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2012). Soft-tissue specimens from pre-European extinct birds of New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand iFirst 2012: 1-28.

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K. A., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., McArthur, N. J., Makan, T. D., Miskelly, Colin M., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., Taylor, G. A. and Michel, P. (2021). Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 36. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 43 pp.

Hugh Robertson, John Dowding, Graeme Elliott, Rod Hitchmough, Colin Miskelly, Colin O’Donnell, Ralph Powlesland, Paul Sagar, Paul Scofield, Graeme Taylor. (2013). Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 4. 22 pp.

Trotter, M. M. (1965). Avian remains from North Otago archaeological sites. Notornis 12(3): 176-178.

Watanabe, Junya. (2017). Quantitative discrimination of flightlessness in fossil Anatidae from skeletal proportions. The Auk 134(3): 672-695.

Williams, G. R. (1962). Extinction and the land and freshwater-inhabiting birds of New Zealand. Notornis 10(1): 15-32.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (1993). Quaternary fossil faunas from caves in the Punakaiki area, West Coast, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of the Royal Society of New Zealand 23(3): 147-254.

Worthy, T. H. and Holdaway, R. N. (1994). Quaternary fossil faunas from caves in Takaka Valley and on Takaka Hill, northwest Nelson, South Island, New Zealand. Journal of The Royal Society of New Zealand 24(3): 297-391.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Trevor H. Worthy, Richard N. Holdaway, M. D. Sorenson and A. C. Cooper. (1997). Description of the first complete skeleton of the extinct New Zealand goose Cnemiornis calcitrans (Aves: Anatidae), and a reassessment of  the relationships of Cnemiornis. Journal of Zoology, London 243(4): 695-718. [pagination at top of the first page is incorrect]

Worthy, Trevor H. and Mildenhall, D. C. (1989). A late Otiran-Holocene paleoenvironment reconstruction based on cave excavations in northwest Nelson, New Zealand. N.Z. Journal of Geology and Geophysics 32: 243-253.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Zhao, J. X. (2006). A late Pleistocene predator-accumulated avifauna from Kids Cave, West Coast, South Island, New Zealand. Alcheringa Special Issue 1: 389-408.

Wragg, Graham M. (1981). The birds of Canterbury: history and present status. A dissertation presented as a requirement for the Diploma in Parks and Recreation (National Parks option). Lincoln College, New Zealand.

 

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