Aythya innotata (Salvadori, 1894)

Madagascar pochard



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Nyroca innotata Salvadori, 1894 (original combination)


Conservation Status

Last record: 1991

Rediscovered in 2006

IUCN status: Critically Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Salvadori, T. (1894). Anas oustaleti and Nyroca innotata, spp. nn., i, ii . – Bulletin of the British Ornithologists’ Club 4(20): 1-2. 

Other references:

Bamford, Andrew J., Sam, T. S., Razafindrajao, F., Robson, H., Woolaver, L. G. and Rene de Roland, L.-A. (2015). The status and ecology of the last wild population of Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata. Bird Conservation International 25(1): 97-110.

BirdLife International. (2012). Aythya innotata. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.1. ( Downloaded on 10 July 2012.

Butchart, Stuart H. M., Stattersfield, A. J. and Brooks, T. M. (2006). Going or gone: defining ‘Possibly Extinct’ species to give a truer picture of recent extinctions. Bulletin of the British Ornithologists' Club 126A: 7-24.

De Roland, L. R., Sam, T. S., Rakotondratsima, M. P. H. and Thorstrom, R. (2007). Rediscovery of the Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata in Northern Madagascar. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 14: 171-174.

Donald, Paul F. et al. (2010). Facing Extinction: The world's rarest birds and the race to save them. London: T & A D Poyser.

Edhem, M. (1993). Lake Alaotra - in search of the Madagascar Pochard. Wildfowl and Wetlands 109: 18-21.

Green, Andy J. (1992). Wildfowl at Risk, 1992. Wildfowl 43: 160-184. [automatic download]

Knox, Alan G. and Walters, Michael P. (1994). Extinct and endangered birds in the collections of The Natural History Museum. British Ornithologists' Club Occasional Publications 1: 1-292.

Nomenjanahary, Zafindratsaravelo B., Hansford, James P., Samonds, Karen E. and Goodman, Steven M. (2023). Osteological measurements and sexual dimorphism of the Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata (Anseriformes: Anatidae). Malagasy Nature 18: 92-99.

Pidgeon, M. (1996). Summary: an ecological survey of Lake Alaotra and selected wetlands of central and eastern Madagascar in analysing the demise of Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata. Working Group on Birds in the Madagascar Region Newsletter 6(2): 17-19.

Rene de Roland, L-A., Sam, T.S., Rakotondratsima, M. P. H., Thorstrom, R. (2007). Rediscovery of the Madagascar Pochard (Aythya innotata) in northern Madagascar. Bulletin of the African Bird Club 14(2): 171-174.

Rene de Roland, L-A. and Young, G. (2022). Anatidae: Aythya innotata, Madagascar Pochard, pp. 1650-1653. In: Goodman, S. M. (ed.). The New Natural History of Madagascar. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

The Peregrine Fund. (2009). The Peregrine Fund assists launch of conservation program for critically endangered Madagascar Pochard. Available at:

Watson, R. (2007). "Extinct" ducks, new lemurs and endangered owls in Madagascar: a new conservation gem in a global biodiversity hotspot. Peregrine Fund Newsletter [2007]: 16-17.

Wilmé, Lucienne. (1993). A recent record of the Madagascar pochard Aythya innotata on Lake Alaotra, Madagascar. Bulletin British Ornithologists’ Club 113: 188-189.

Wilmé, Lucienne. (1994). Status, distribution and conservation of two Madagascar bird species endemic to Lake Alaotra: Delacour's grebe Tachybaptus rufolavatus and Madagascar pochard Aythya innotata. Biological Conservation 69: 15-21.

Young, G. (2005). Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata, pp. 657-658. In: Kear, J. (ed.), Ducks, geese and swans volume 2. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Young, H. G. (2013). Madagascar Pochard, Aythya innotata, pp. 260-262. In: Safford, R. J. and Hawkins, F. A. (eds.). The Birds of Africa, volume VIII: The Malagasy Region. London: Christopher Helm.

Young, H. G. and Kear, J. (2006). The rise and fall of wildfowl of the western Indian Ocean and Australasia. Bulletin British Ornithologists’ Club 126A: 25-39.

Young, H. G. and Smith, J. G. (1989). The search for the Madagascar Pochard Aythya innotata: Survey of Lac Alaotra, Madagascar October–November, 1989. Dodo, Journal of Jersey Wildlife Preservation Trust 26: 17-34.


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