Anas chathamica (Oliver, 1955:599)

Chatham Island duck, Chatham duck



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Pachyanas chathamica Oliver, 1955: New Zealand Birds, 2nd edition: 599 – Chatham Islands.; Diaphorapteryx sp. Milne-Edwards, 1896:126


Placement within the genus Anas follows (Mitchell et al., 2014).


Conservation Status


Last record: c.1500 AD



Chatham Islands, New Zealand


Biology & Ecology







Above: Chatham Island Duck. Pachyanas chathamica. From the series: Extinct Birds of New Zealand., 2004, Masterton, by Paul Martinson. Purchased 2006. © Te Papa. CC BY-NC-ND 4.0. Te Papa (2006-0010-1/34)



Original scientific description:

Oliver, Walter R. B. (1955). New Zealand Birds, 2nd edition. Wellington: Reed.


Other references:

Callaghan, D. (2005). The shelducks and sheldgeese, pp. 395-398. In: Kear, J. (ed.) Ducks, Geese and Swans, Volume 1. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press.

Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2010). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquarie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica (4th ed.). Ornithological Society of New Zealand & Te Papa Press, Wellington. [p. 42]

Checklist Committee (OSNZ). (2022). Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand (5th edition). Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 1. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand. [p. 34]

Gill, Brian and Martinson, Paul. (1991). New Zealand's extinct birds. New Zealand: Random Century.

Hume, Julian Pender and Walters, Michael. (2012). Extinct Birds. London: T & AD Poyser.

Livezey, Bradley C. (1997). A phylogenetic classification of waterfowl (Aves: Anseriformes), including selected fossil species. Annals of Carnegie Museum 66: 455-494.

Millener, P. R. (1999). The history of the Chatham Islands' bird fauna of the last 7000 years—A chronicle of change and extinction. Smithsonian Contributions to Paleobiology 89: 85-109.

Milne-Edwards, A. (1896). Sur les resemblanes qui existent entre la faune des les Mascareignes et celle de certaines iles de l'Océan Pacifique Austral. Annales des  Sciences Naturelles - Zoologie et Paléontologie S8(2): 117-136.

Miskelly, Colin M., Forsdick, Natalie J., Gill, Brian J., Palma, Ricardo L., Rawlence, Nicolas J. and Tennyson, Alan J. D. (2022). Amendments to the 2010 Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 2. Wellington: Ornithological Society of New Zealand.

Mitchell, Kieren J. et al. (2014). Ancient mitochondrial genome reveals unsuspected taxonomic affinity of the extinct Chatham duck (Pachyanas chathamica) and resolves divergence times for New Zealand and sub-Antarctic brown teals. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 70: 420-428.

Robertson, H. A., Baird, K. A., Elliott, G. P., Hitchmough, R. A., McArthur, N. J., Makan, T. D., Miskelly, Colin M., O’Donnell, C. F. J., Sagar, P. M., Scofield, R. P., Taylor, G. A. and Michel, P. (2021). Conservation status of birds in Aotearoa New Zealand, 2021. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 36. Department of Conservation, Wellington. 43 pp.

Hugh Robertson, John Dowding, Graeme Elliott, Rod Hitchmough, Colin Miskelly, Colin O’Donnell, Ralph Powlesland, Paul Sagar, Paul Scofield, Graeme Taylor. (2013). Conservation status of New Zealand birds, 2012. New Zealand Threat Classification Series 4. 22 pp.

Salvador, Rodrigo B. et al. (2021). Feeding ecology analysis supports a marine diet in the extinct Chatham Island Duck (Anas chathamica). Emu. [Abstract]

Tyrberg, Tommy. (2009). Holocene avian extinctions, pp. 63-106. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Watanabe, Junya. (2017). Quantitative discrimination of flightlessness in fossil Anatidae from skeletal proportions. The Auk 134(3): 672-695.

Williams, G. R. (1962). Extinction and the land and freshwater-inhabiting birds of New Zealand. Notornis 10(1): 15-32.

Williams, Murray. (2015a). Formidable carpal weaponry of Anas chathamica, Chatham Island's extinct flightless duck. Notornis 62: 113-120.

Williams, Murray. (2015b). Size and flight capability of Anas chathamica, an extinct duck from Chatham Island, New Zealand. Wildfowl  65: 75-99.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Young, H. Glyn, Tonge, Simon J. and Hume, Julian Pender. (1996). Review of Holocene wildfowl extinctions. Wildfowl 47: 167-181.


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