Bifurcaria galapagensis (Piccone & Grunow) Womersley (1964:104)

Galápagos stringweed



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Fucodium galapagense Piccone & Grunow, 1886; Pelvetia galapagensis (Piccone & Grunow) De Toni (1895); Blossevillea galapagensis (Piccone & Grunow) W.R.Taylor (1945)


Conservation Status

Missing (Edgar et al., 2010)

Last record February 1983 (Miller et al., 2007)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)



Galápagos Islands, Ecuador


Biology & Ecology




At least three collections of this species were made which have been preserved in the Charles Darwin Research Station's herbarium collection:

CDS 17587
CDS 17588
CDS 23195

For full details regarding the collection of these specimens, see: and and






Original scientific description:

Piccone, A. (1886). Alghe del viaggio di circumnavigazione della Vettor Pisani. pp. [1]-97, 2 pls. Genova [Genoa]: Tipografia del Reale Istituto Sordo-Muti.


Other references:

Cinelli, F. and Colantoni, P. (1974). Alcune osservazioni del benthos marino sulle coste recciose delle isole Galápagos (Oceano Pacifico). Gruppo ricerche scientifiche e tecniche subacquee, Firenze. 22 pp.

Edgar, Graham J., Banks, Stuart A., Brandt, Margarita, Bustamante, Rodrigo H., Chiriboga, Angel, Earle, Sylvia A., Garske, Lauren E., Glynn, Peter W., Grove, Jack S., Henderson, Scott, Hickman, Cleve P., Miller, Kathy A., Rivera, Fernando and Wellington, Gerald M. (2010). El Niño, grazers and fisheries interact to greatly elevate extinction risk for Galapagos marine species. Global Change Biology 16(10): 2876-2890.

Farlow, W.G. (1902) Algae. In: B.L. Robinson: Flora of the Galapagos Islands. Proc. Amerc. Acad. Arts Sc. 38(4): 89-99, N.S. 14 (Papers from the Hopkins-Stanford Expedition to the Galapagos Islands)

Garske, L.E. (2002) Macroalgas Marinas. In: Danulat, E. & Edgar, G.J. (eds.) (2002): Reserva Marina de Galápagos. Línea Base de la Biodiversidad. Fundación Charles Darwin/Servicio Parque Nacional Galápagos, Santa Cruz, Galápagos, Ecuador, p. 419-439.

Guiry, M. D. Bifurcaria galapagensis Database entry on AlgaeBase. Accessed 18 January 2011. (Available online:

Hedgpeth, J. W. (1969). An intertidal reconnaissance of rocky shores of Galápagos. Wasmann Journal of Biology 27: 1-24.

Jensen, A. (1974). Morphological studies in Cystoseiraceae and Sargasaceae (Phaeophyceae) with special reference to apical organization. University of California Publications in Botany 68: 1-61, 23 figs, 16 pls.

Mead, G. W., Silva, P. C., Earle, S. A., Rozaire, C. A. and Janss, E. (1972). R/V Searcher Cruise 72-1 Galápagos Islands and Cocos Island. 49 pp.

Miller, K.A. Garske, L.E. (2011) Galápagos Seaweeds. unpublished manuscript, 49 pp.

Miller, K. A., Garske, L. and Edgar, G. (2007). Bifurcaria galapagensis. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 02 June 2013.

Piccone, A. (1886) Alghe del viaggio di circumnavigazione della Vettor Pisani. pp. [1]-97, 2 pls. Genova [Genoa]: Tipografia del Reale Istituto Sordo-Muti.

Robinson, G. (1985). The influence of the 1982-83 El Niño on Galápagos marine life. In: G. Robinson and E.M. Del Pino (eds) El Niño en las Islas Galapagos: el evento de 1982-1983, pp. 153-190. Charles Darwin Foundation for the Galápagos Islands, Quito.

Silva, P.C. (1966) Status of our knowledge of the Galapagos benthic marine algal flora prior to the Galapagos International Scientific Project. In: Bowman, R.I. (ed.): The Galapagos Islands Symposium of the Galapagos International Scientific Project. University of California Press, Berkeley, p. 149-156.

Taylor, W. R. (1945). Pacific marine algae of the Allan Hancock Expeditions to the Galápagos Islands. Allan Hancock Pacific Expeditions 12 12(iv): 528 pp.

Wellington, G. M. (1975). The Galápagos coastal marine environments. A resource report to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife. A resource report to the Department of National Parks and Wildlife, Quito. 357 pp.

Womersley, H. B. S. (1964). The morphology and taxonomy of Cystophora and related genera (Phaeophyta). Australian Journal of Botany 12: 53-110, 48 figs, 16 plates.


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