Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Filhol, 1895

Malagasy aardvark, Bibymalagasy



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Myoryctes rapeto Forsyth Major, 1908; Hypogeomys boulei G. Grandidier, 1912; Majoria rapeto Thomas, 1915


Conservation Status


Last record: subfossil; 2154 ± 40 14C age BP ± SD (Plesiorycteropus sp.)





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Filhol, H. (1895). Observations concernant les mammiferes contemporains des Aepyornis a Madagascar. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 1: 12-14.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Asher, R. J. (2005). Insectivoran-grade placentals. In The rise of placental mammals: origins and relationships of the major extant clades (ed. K.D. Rose & J.D. Archibald), pp. 50-70. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Buckley, M. (2013). A Molecular Phylogeny of Plesiorycteropus Reassigns the Extinct Mammalian Order ‘Bibymalagasia’. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59614.

Burney, David A. et al. (1997). Environmental change, extinction and human activity: evidence from caves in NW Madagascar. Journal of Biogeography 24: 755-767.

Carleton, A. (1936). The limb bones and vertebrae of the extinct lemurs of Madagascar. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 1936: 281-307.

Crowley, B. E. A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2591–2603 (2010).

Forsyth Major, C. I. (1908). A giant sub-fossil rat from Madagascar, Myoryctes rapeto gen. et sp. nov. (subscription required). Geological Magazine 5(5): 97–98.

Goodman, S. M. & Jungers, W. L. Extinct Madagascar: Picturing the island’s past. (University of Chicago Press, 2014).

Grandidier, G. (1912). Une nouvelle espece subfossile d'Hypogeomys, l'H. boulei, G. G. Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. Paris 18: 10-11.

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Kouvari, M. & van der Geer, A. A. E. Biogeography of extinction: The demise of insular mammals from the Late Pleistocene till today. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 505, 295–304 (2018).

Lamberton, C. (1946). Contribution a la connaissance de la faune subfossile de Madagascar. Note XV . Le Plesiorycteropus madagascariensis Filhol. Bull. Acad. Malgache, N. S., 25: 25-53.

Lavocat, R. (1958). Tubulidentata. In: J. Pivetau (ed.), Traite de Paleontologie, aris: Masson et Cie 6(2): 139-144.

MacPhee, R. D. E. (1994). Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and a diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220:1–214.

Michielsen, Nathan M., Goodman, Steven M., Soarimalala, Voahangy, van der Geer, Alexandra A. E., Dávalos, Liliana M., Saville, Grace I., Upham, Nathan and Valente, Luis. (2023). The macroevolutionary impact of recent and imminent mammal extinctions on Madagascar. Nature Communications 14: 14. [Supplementary Data 1 (mammal list); Supplementary Data 6 (references)]

Patterson, B. (1975). The fossil aardvarks (Mammalia: Tubulidentata). Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard University 147(5): 185–237.

Tatersall, I. (1973). A note on the age of the subfossil site of Apasambazimba Miarinaviro Province, Malagasy Republic. Amer. Mus. Novit., No. 2520: 1-6.

Thomas, O. (1915). Notes on the Asiatic bamboo-rats (Rhizomys, etc.). Annals and Magazine of Natural History 16(8): 56-61.

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Werdelin, L. Bibymalagasia (Mammalia Incertae sedis). in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa (eds. Werdelin, L., Sanders, W.J.) 113–114 (University of California Press, 2010).


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