Plesiorycteropus germainepetterae MacPhee, 1994

Malagasy aardvark, Bibymalagasy



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene; 2154 ± 40 14C age BP ± SD (Plesiorycteropus sp.) (Michielsen et al., 2023)





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

MacPhee, R. D. E. (1994). Morphology, adaptations, and relationships of Plesiorycteropus, and the diagnosis of a new order of eutherian mammals. Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 220: 1-214.


Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Asher, R. J. (2005). Insectivoran-grade placentals. In The rise of placental mammals: origins and relationships of the major extant clades (ed. K.D. Rose & J.D. Archibald), pp. 50-70. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Buckley, M. (2013). A Molecular Phylogeny of Plesiorycteropus Reassigns the Extinct Mammalian Order ‘Bibymalagasia’. PLoS ONE 8(3): e59614.

Burney, D. A. et al. A chronology for late prehistoric Madagascar. J. Hum. Evol. 47, 25–63 (2004).

Crowley, B. E. A refined chronology of prehistoric Madagascar and the demise of the megafauna. Quat. Sci. Rev. 29, 2591–2603 (2010).

Goodman, S. M. & Jungers, W. L. Extinct Madagascar: Picturing the island’s past. (University of Chicago Press, 2014).

Holmes, Branden. (2021). What's Lost and What Remains: The Sixth Extinction in 100 Accounts (eBook). Self published.

Kouvari, M. & van der Geer, A. A. E. Biogeography of extinction: The demise of insular mammals from the Late Pleistocene till today. Palaeogeogr. Palaeoclimatol. Palaeoecol. 505, 295–304 (2018).

Michielsen, Nathan M., Goodman, Steven M., Soarimalala, Voahangy, van der Geer, Alexandra A. E., Dávalos, Liliana M., Saville, Grace I., Upham, Nathan and Valente, Luis. (2023). The macroevolutionary impact of recent and imminent mammal extinctions on Madagascar. Nature Communications 14: 14. [Supplementary Data 1 (mammal list); Supplementary Data 6 (references)]

Turvey, Samuel T. (2009). Holocene mammal extinctions, pp. 41-61. In: Turvey, Samuel T. (ed.). Holocene Extinctions. Oxford, UK & New York, USA: Oxford University Press. xii + 352 pp.

Turvey, Samuel T. and Fritz, Susanne A. (2011). The ghosts of mammals past: biological and geographical patterns of global mammalian extinction across the Holocene. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 366(1577): 2564-2576. [Supplementary Information]

Werdelin, L. Bibymalagasia (Mammalia Incertae sedis). in Cenozoic Mammals of Africa (eds. Werdelin, L., Sanders, W.J.) 113–114 (University of California Press, 2010).


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