Spizaetus grinnelli Miller, 1911

Grinnell’s crested eagle



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status


Last record: Late Pleistocene





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Miller, L. (1911). A series of eagle tarsi from the Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bull. Depart. Geol. 6: 305-316.


Other references:

Becker, J. J. (1985). A late Pleistocene (Wisconsinanan) avifauna from West Palm Beach, Florida. Bull. Br. Ornithol. Club 105: 37-40.

DeAnda, Erin, Prothero, Donald R. and Marriott, Katherine. (2022). How did Grinnell's hawk-eagle (Spizaetus grinnelli) from La Brea Tar Pits respond to climate change? In: Morgan, Gary S. et al. Late Cenozoic Vertebrates from the American Southwest: A Tribute to Arthur H. Harris. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 88: 155-160.

Emslie, Steven D. (1998). Avian community, climate, and sea-level changes in the Plio-Pleistocene of the Florida Peninsula. Ornithological Monographs, No. 50: iii + 113 pp.

Guthrie, D. A. 2009. An updated catalogue of the birds from the Carpinteria Asphalt, Pleistocene of California. Bulletin of the Southern California Academy of Sciences 108(2):52-62.

Hertel, Fritz. (1995). Ecomorphological indicators of feeding behavior in recent and fossil raptors. The Auk 112(4): 890-903.

Howard, H. (1932). Eagles and eagle-like vultures of the Pleistocene of Rancho La Brea. Contrib. Palaeontol. Carnegie Inst. Wash. 429: 1-82.

Jefferson, G. T. (1991). A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part one; nonmarine lower vertebrate and avian taxa. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 5: 1-60.

Stock, Chester and Harris, J. M. (1992). Rancho La Brea: A Record of Pleistocene Life in California. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series no. 37, 7th ed.: i-xiv + 1-113.


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