The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Thismia americana N.Pfeiff., 1914:123

Banded trinity



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

Extinct (Humphreys et al., 2019; Knapp et al., 2020)

Last record: 1913



Illinois, USA


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Pfeiffer, N. E. 1914. Morphology of Thismia americana. Bot. Gaz. 57:122-135.


Other references:

CPC (1990). Centre for plant conservation data for North American plants database. CPC, Centre for plant conservation.

Humphreys, Aelys M. et al. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Jonker, F. P. (1938). A monograph of the Burmanniaceae. Meded Bot. Mus. Herb. Riijks Univ. Utrecht 51:1-279.

Knapp, Wesley M. et al. (2020). Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada. Conservation Biology. doi:

Masters, L. (1995). Thismia americana N. E. Pfeiffer, a history. Erigenia 14: 8-14.

Merckx, V. S. F. T., S. I F. Gomes, M. Wapstra, C. Hunt, G. Steenbeeke, C. B. Mennes, N. Walsh, R. Smissen, Tsung-Hsin, E. F. Smets, and M. Bidartondo. (2017). The biogeographical history of the interaction between mycoheterotrophic Thismia (Thismiaceae) plants and mycorrhizal Rhizophagus (Glomeraceae) fungi. J. Biogeogr. 44:1869-1879.

Merckx, V. S. F. T. and E. F. Smets. (2014). Thismia americana, the 101st anniversary of a botanical mystery. Int. J. Plant Sci. 175: 165-175.

Pfeiffer, N. E. (1918). The sporangia of Thismia americana. Bot. Gaz. 66:354-363.

Wilhelm, Gerould and Rericha, Laura. (submitted). Thismia americana, a Chicago Endemic or an Elaborate Hoax? The Great Lakes Botanist.


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