The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Lycium verrucosum Eastw.

San Nicholas Island desert-thorn, San Nicolas Island boxthorn



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Considered a synonym of L. brevipes by (Humphreys et al., 2019).


Conservation Status

Last record: 1897; 1901 (Smith, 2018)

Extinct (Knapp et al., 2020)



San Nicolas Island, Channel Islands, California, USA


Biology & Ecology










Abrams, L. (1951). Illustrated flora of the Pacific states. Volume III. Geraniaceae to Scrophulariaceae. Stanford University Press, Stanford University, California. 866 p. Described this plant, and stated that it is known only from the type locality on cliffs along an arroyo on San Nicolas Island.

Baldwin, B. G., Goldman, D. H., Keil, D. J., Paterson, R., Rosatti, T. J., & Wilken, D. H. (2012). The Jepson Manual: Vascular plants of California, 2nd ed. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.

Chiang-Cabrera, F. (1981). A taxonomic study of the North American species of Lycium (Solanaceae). Unpublished Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin. 287 pp.

Humphreys, Aelys M., Govaerts, Rafaël, Ficinski, Sarah Z., Lughadha, Eimear Nic and Vorontsova, Maria S. (2019). Global dataset shows geography and life form predict modern plant extinction and rediscovery. Nature Ecology & Evolution 3: 1043-1047. [Abstract] [Supplementary Dataset 1]

Knapp, Wesley M. et al. (2020). Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada. Conservation Biology. doi:

POWO. 2018. Plants of the World online. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

Rejmánek, Marcel. (2018). Vascular plant extinctions in California: A critical assessment. Diversity and Distributions 24(1): 129-136.

Smith, James P. Jnr. (2018). California vascular plants: are some of them still out there? Botanical Studies 74: 1-4? [4].

U.D.D.I. Fish and Wildlife Service (1985). Review of plant taxa for listing as endangered or threatened species; notice of review. Federal Register 50(188): 1-39.


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