The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Partulina variabilis (Newcomb, 1854)

Lanai tree snail, pupu kani oe



Taxonomy & Nomenclature



Conservation Status

IUCN RedList status: Endangered



Lanai, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Baillie, J. and Groombridge, B. (eds). 1996. 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. pp. 378. International Union for Conservation of Nature, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Groombridge, B. (ed.). 1994. 1994 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.

Hadfield 1986, p. 69

Hadfield 1994, p. 2

Hadfield 2005, pp. 3-5

Hadfield, M. & Hadway, L. 1996. Partulina variabilis. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 1996: e.T16372A5641238. Downloaded on 12 May 2018.

Hadfield and Miller 1989, pp. 10-12

Pilsbry and Cooke 1912-1914, p. 86, 103

Price, M. R., Hadfield, M. G., Knapp, I. S. S., Toonen, R. J. and Forsman, Z. H. (2021). Evolutionary genomics of endangered Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) for conservation of adaptive capacity. PeerJ 9:e10993. [Supplemental Information 1 (Maximum likelihood (ML) trees); Supplemental Information 2 (Tree snail sample attributes by taxonomy)]

TNC 2007

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). (2016). Endangered and threatened wildlife and plants; designation and nondesignation of critical habitat on Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe for 135 species; final rule. Federal Register 81(61): 17789-18110.


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