The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Achatinella livida Swainson, 1828

Oahu treesnail, pupu kuahiwi



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

7 synonyms:

Achatinella viridans Mighels

Achatinella emersoni, Newcomb

Achatinella reevei, Adams

Achatinella recta, Newcomb

Achatinella glauca, Gulick

Achatinella herbacea, Gulick

Eburnella livida, Swainson


Conservation Status


IUCN RedList status: Extinct


Almost certainly wrongly listed as extinct by the IUCN.



Oahu, Hawaiian Islands, USA


Biology & Ecology










Caum, E.L. 1974. Check list of Hawaiian land and fresh water mollusca. Bulletin of the Bernice P. Bishop Museum, Honolulu, 56: 1-80.

Cowie, R.H., N.L. Evenhuis, C.C. Christensen. 1995. Catalog of the Native Land and Freshwater Molluscs of the Hawaiian Islands. Backhuys Publishers: Leiden, The Netherlands. 248 pp.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Holland, B.S. and M.G. Hadfield. 2004. Origin and diversification of the endemic Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) based on molecular evidence. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 32:588-600.

Mollusc Specialist Group. (1996). Achatinella livida. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. ( Downloaded on 19 September 2011.

NatureServe. 2017. NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: April 15, 2017).

Price, M. R., Hadfield, M. G., Knapp, I. S. S., Toonen, R. J. and Forsman, Z. H. (2021). Evolutionary genomics of endangered Hawaiian tree snails (Achatinellidae: Achatinellinae) for conservation of adaptive capacity. PeerJ 9:e10993. [Supplemental Information 1 (Maximum likelihood (ML) trees); Supplemental Information 2 (Tree snail sample attributes by taxonomy)]

Price, M. R., Sischo, D., Pascua, M. and Hadfield, M. G. (2015). Demographic and genetic factors in the recovery or demise of ex situ populations following a severe bottleneck in fifteen species of Hawaiian tree snails. PeerJ 3: e1406.

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). 1993. Recovery plan. Oahu tree snails of the genus Achatinella. U.S. Department of the Interior Fish and Wildlife Service, Portland, Oregon. 58 pp. + 64 app.


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