The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

enfrdeitjaptrues

Nothrotheriops shastense Sinclair, 1905

Shasta ground sloth

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Nothrotheriops shastensis Sinclair, 1905; Nothrotherium shastense Sinclair, 1905

Ichnospecies: Castrocopros martini Hunt & Lucas, 2018:285

 

Conservation Status

Last record: Late Pleistocene

 

Distribution

North America (including New Mexico)

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

 

 

References

Akersten, W. A. and McDonald, H. G. (1991). Nothrotheriops from the Pleistocene of Oklahoma and paleogeography of the genus. The Southwestern Naturalist 36(2): 178-185.

Ayer, Mary Youngman. (1936). The archaeological and faunal material from Williams Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia 88: 599-619, 1 pl. [Abstract]

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Catling, Paul M. (2001). Extinction and the importance of history and dependence in conservation. Biodiversity 2(3): 2-14. [Abstract]

Colbert, E. H. 1950. The fossil vertebrates. Pp. 126-148 in The stratigraphy and archaeology of Ventana Cave. University of Arizona Press and University of New Mexico Press, Tucson and Albuquerque.

Conkling, R. P. 1932. Conkling Cavern: The discoveries in the bone cave at Bishops Cap, New Mexico. West Texas Historical and Scientific Society Bulletin 44:39-41.

Ferrusquía-Villafranca I., Arroyo-Cabrales J., Martínez-Hernández E., Gama-Castro J., Ruiz-González J., Polaco O.J., Johnson E. 2010 Pleistocene mammals of Mexico: A critical review of regional chronofaunas, climate change response and biogeographic provinciality. Quaternary International 217(1–2), 53-104.

Fiedel, S. 2009. Sudden deaths: The chronology of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinction. Pp. 21-37, in American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene (G. Haynes, ed.). Springer Science + Business Media, 201 pp.

Gill, Fiona L.; Crump, Matthew P.; Schouten, Remmert; Bull, Ian D. (2009). Lipid analysis of a ground sloth coprolite. Quaternary Research 72: 284-288.

Green, Jeremy L. (2009). Dental microwear in the orthodentine of the Xenarthra (Mammalia) and its use in reconstructing the palaeodiet of extinct taxa: the case study of Nothrotheriops shastensis (Xenarthra, Tardigrada, Nothrotheriidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 156(1): 201-222. [Abstract]

Greenwood, Alex D., Castresana, Jose, Feldmaier-Fuchs, Gertraud and Pääbo, Svante. (2000). A molecular phylogeny of two extinct sloths. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18(1): 94-103.

Hagey, Lee R., Vidal, Nicolas, Hofmann, Alan F. and Krasowski, Matthew D. (2010). Evolutionary diversity of bile salts in reptiles and mammals, including analysis of ancient human and extinct giant ground sloth coprolites. BMC Evolutionary Biology 10: 133.

Hansen, R. M. 1978. Shasta ground sloth food habits, Rampart Cave, Arizona. Paleobiology 4: 302-319.

Harrington, M. R. 1940. Man and beast in Gypsum Cave. The Desert Magazine 3(6): 3-5, 34.

Harris, A. H. 1985. Late Pleistocene vertebrate paleoecology of the West. University of Texas Press, Austin, 293 pp.

Harris, Arthur H. (1987). Reconstruction of Mid Wisconsin Environments in Southern New Mexico. National Geographic Research 3(2): 142-151.

Harris, A. H. 1989. The New Mexican late Wisconsin—east versus west. National Geographic Research 5: 205-217.

Harris, Arthur H. (1993). Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico, pp. 179-197. In: Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2: i-vii, 1-338.

Harris, A. H. 2003. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Pendejo Cave. Pp. 36-65, in Pendejo Cave (R. S. MacNeish and J. G. Libby, eds.), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 526 pp.

Hibben, F. C. 1941. Evidences of early occupation in Sandia Cave, New Mexico, and other sites in the Sandia-Manzano region. With appendix on Correlation of the deposits of Sandia Cave, New Mexico, with the glacial chronology. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections 99(23):i-vi, 1-(?63+)

Hill, C. A., and D. D. Gillette. (1987). A uranium series date for the Shasta ground sloth, Nothrotheriops shastensis, from Carlsbad Cavern, New Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 68(3): 718-719.

Hofreiter, Michael, Betancourt, Julio L., Sbriller, Alicia Pelliza, Markgraf, Vera and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2003). Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Curá, NeuqueĊ„ Province, southwest Argentina. Quaternary Research 59: 364-378.

Hughes, Jonathan J. (2016). Resolving the xenarthran phylogeny using nuclear loci. Thesis, McMaster University. xi + 73 pp.

Hunt, Adrian P. and Lucas, Spencer G. (2018). The record of sloth coprolites in North and South America: implications for terminal Pleistocene extinctions. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 79: 277-298.

Iuliis, Gerardo de et al. (2015). Nothrotheriops shastensis (Sinclair, 1905) from Actun Lak: First record of Nothrotheridae (Mammalia, Xenarthra, Pilosa) from Belize. Ameghiniana 52(1): 153-171.

Jefferson, G. T. 1991. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part two: Mammals. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 7:1-129.

Kenworthy, J., V. L. Santucci, and K. L. Cole. 2004. An inventory of paleontological resources associated with caves in Grand Canyon National Park. Pp. 211-228, in The Colorado Plateau, Cultural, Biological, and Physical Research (C. v. Riper III and K. L. Cole, eds.), University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Kurtén B., Anderson E. 1980 Pleistocene Mammals of North America. New York, Columbia University Press.

Lindsay, E. H., and N. T. Tessman. 1974. Late Cenozoic vertebrate localities and faunas in Arizona. Journal of the Arizona Academy of Science 9:3-24.

Logan, L. E. 1983. Paleoecological implications of the mammalian fauna of Lower Sloth Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. National Speleological Society, Bulletin 45: 3-11.

Logan, L. E. and Black, C. C. (1979). The Quaternary vertebrate fauna of Upper Sloth Cave, Guadalupe Mountains National Park, Texas, pp. 141-158. In: Genoways, H. H. and Baker, R. J. (eds.). Biological investigations in the Guadalupe Mountains National Park. National Park Service Proceedings and Transactions Series 4:1-442.

Long, A., and P. S. Martin. 1974. Death of American ground sloths. Science 186:638-640.

Long, A., R. M. Hansen, and P. S. Martin. (1974). Extinction of the Shasta ground sloth. Geological Society of America Bulletin 85: 1843-1848.

Lull, R. S. (1929). A remarkable ground sloth. Memoir. Peabody Museum, Yale University 3, pt. 2:i-x + 1-39.

Martin, P. S., B. E. Sabels, and D. Shutler, Jr. (1961). Rampart Cave coprolite and ecology of the Shasta Ground Sloth. American Journal of Science 259: 102-107.

Mawby, J. E. 1967. Fossil vertebrates of the Tule Springs site, Nevada. Nevada State Museum, Anthropological Papers 13:106-128.

McDonald, H. G. (1985). The Shasta ground sloth Nothrotheriops shastensis (Xenarthra, Megatheriidae) in the middle Pleistocene of Florida. Pp. 95–104 in G. G. Montgomery (ed.), The Evolution and Ecology of Armadillos, Sloths, and Vermilinguas. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C., 451 p.

McDonald, H. Gregory. (1996). Biogeography and Paleoecology of Ground Sloths in California, Arizona and Nevada. SBCMA Quarterly 43(1): 61-65.

McDonald, H. G. 2005. Paleoecology of extinct xenarthrans and the Great American Biotic Interchange. Florida Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 45(4):313-333.

McDonald, H. G., and G. T. Jefferson. (2008). Distribution of Pleistocene Nothrotheriops (Xenarthra, Nothrotheridae) in North America. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County, Science Series 41: 313-331.

Mead, J. I., N. J. Czaplewski, and L. D. Agenbroad. 2005. Rancholabrean (Late Pleistocene) mammals and localities of Arizona. Pp. 139-180, in (R. D. McCord, ed.) Vertebrate Paleontology of Arizona, Mesa Southwest Museum Bulletin No. 11.

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Naples, Viriginia L. (1987). Reconstruction of Cranial Morphology and Analysis of Function in the Pleistocene Ground Sloth Nothrotheriops shastense (Mammalia, Megatheriidae). Contributions in Science 389, October 1987, Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County.

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Raymond, Kristina R. and Prothero, Donald R. (2010). Comparative variability of intermembranous and endochondral bones in Pleistocene mammals. Palaeontologia Electronica 13.1.4A.

Reynolds, R. E., R. L. Reynolds, and C. J. Bell. 1991. The Devil Peak sloth. Pp. 115-116, in Crossing the Borders: Quaternary Studies in Eastern California and Southwestern Nevada (R. E. Reynolds, compiler). MDQRC 1991 Special Publication, San Bernardino County Museum Association, Redlands, CA.

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Thompson, R. S., T. R. Van Devender, P. S. Martin, T. Foppe, and A. Long. (1980). Shasta ground sloth (Nothrotheriops shastense Hoffstetter) at Shelter Cave, New Mexico: Environment, diet, and extinction. Quaternary Research 14(3): 360-376.

Van Devender, T. R., P. S. Martin, A. M. Phillips III, and W. G. Spaulding. 1977. Late Pleistocene biotic communities in the Guadalupe Mountains, Culberson County, Texas. Pp. 107-113, in Transactions of the symposium on the biological resources of the Chihuahuan Desert region, United States and Mexico (R. H. Wauer and D. H. Riskind, eds.). National Park Service Proceedings and Transactions Series 3: 1-658.

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https://uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1003&context=kgs_facpub

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/11079/nothrotheriops-shastensis

 

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