The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Equus ferus przewalskii (Poljakov, 1881)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Taxonomic status uncertain.


Conservation Status

Taxonomic status uncertain.












Three photographs from London Zoo taken by Frederick William Bond:,-October-1927-.html,-October-1927-.html,-October-1927-.html



Original scientific description:
Poljakov, I. S. (1881). Przewalski's horse (Equus przewalskii n. sp.). Isvestia Russki Geograph. Obs. St Petersburg 17: 1-20.


Other references:

Ahrens, E. & Stranzinger, G. 2005. Comparative chromosomal studies of E. caballus (ECA) and E. przewalskii (EPR) in a female F1 hybrid. J. Anim. Breed. Genet. 122: 97-102.

Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.

Arnold, W., Ruf, T., and Kuntz, R. (2006). Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) II. Energy expenditure. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 4566–4573.

Bandi, N. 2004. Reproduction status of takhi being reintroduced to Hustai National Park. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 57. Bandi, N. & Enkhtur, A. 2004. Mortality of takhi and its causes. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 57.

Bennett, Deb and Hoffmann, Robert S. (1999). Equus caballus. Mammalian Species 628: 1-14, 4 figs.

Berger, A., Scheibe, K. M., Eichhorn, K., Scheibe, A., and Streich, J. (1999). Diurnal and ultradian rhythms of behaviour in a mare group of Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii), measured through one year under semi-reserve conditions. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 64, 1–17.

Bouman, J. (1977). The future of Przewalski horses Equus przewalskii [Plate 10] in captivity. International Zoo Yearbook, 17(1), 62-68. [Abstract]

Bouman, I. & Bouman, J. 1994. The history of Przewalski’s horse. In L. Boyd and K. Houpt (ed.): Przewalski’s horse. The history and biology of an endangered species. SUNY, Albany, NY, pp. 5-8.

Boyd, L. 1998. The 24-h time budget of a takh harem stallion (Equus ferus przewalskii) pre- and post-reintroduction. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 60: 291-299.

Boyd, L., Carbonaro, D. & Houpt, K. 1988. The 24-hour time budget of Przewalski horses. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 21: 5-17.

Boyd, L. and Houpt, K. A. (eds.). (1994). Przewalski’s Horse: The History and Biology of an Endangered Species. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.

Chen J (2008). Utilization of Food, Water and Space by Released Przewalski Horse (Equus przewalski)with Reference to Survival Strategies Analysis. Beijing, China: Beijing Forestry University.

Choe, R. S., Han, K. S., Kim, S. C., U, C., Ho, C. U., Kang, I. (2020). Late Pleistocene fauna from Chongphadae Cave, Hwangju County, Democratic People’s Republic of Korea. Quaternary Research [2020]: 1-13. [Abstract]

Cucchi T, Mohaseb A, Peigné S, Debue K, Orlando L, Mashkour M. 2017 Detecting taxonomic and phylogenetic signals in equid cheek teeth: towards new palaeontological and archaeological proxies. R. Soc. open sci. 4: 160997.

Maureen D'Souza-Anjo, Bruce W. Christensen, Kristin Brabender, Waltraut Zimmermann, Philip H. Kass, Franz Schwarzenberger. (2017). A comparison of fecal steroid metabolite concentrations between harem and bachelor stallions in a free-Ranging population of przewalski's horses (Equus ferus przewalskii). Zoo Biology. DOI: 10.1002/zoo.21348 [Abstract]

Fischer, J. & Lindenmayer, D. B. 2000. An assessment of the published results of animal relocations. Biol. Conserv. 96: 1-11.

Gao, J. W. (1982). Penghu fauna. Geol. J. Inst. Mar. Sci. Dept. Mar. Sci. Chinese Culture Univ. J. Mar. Sci. 27: 123-132.

Goto H., Ryder O.A., Fisher A.R., Schultz B., Kosakovsky Pond S.L., Nekrutenko A. & Makova K.D. (2011) A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski’s horses. Genome Biology and Evolution 3, 1096–106.

Ganbaatar, O. 2004. Takhi’s (Equus przewalskii Polj. 1883) home range and water point use. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 61-65.

Groves, C. P. 1994. Morphology, habitat and taxonomy. In L. Boyd and K. Houpt (ed.): Przewalski’s horse. The history and biology of an endangered species. SUNY, Albany, NY.

Jiang Z., Zong H. 2019. Reintroduction of the Przewalski's horse in China: status quo and outlook. Nature Conservation Research 4(Suppl.2): 15-22.

Joslin, Paul and Maryanka, Daphne. (1968). Endangered Mammals of the World: Report on Status and Action Treatment. IUCN Publications, New Series, Supplementary Paper No. 13: 34 pp.

Kaczensky, P. & Walzer, C. 2004. Monitoring of free-ranging Przewalski’s horses with satellite telemetry in Takhin Tal. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 59-60.

Kalenta, Tadeusz et al. (2017). Preliminary observations of the behaviour in two wild species of equids: Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) and Hartmann’s zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae) kept in socially changed groups at Warsaw Zoo. Annals of Warsaw University of Life Sciences – SGGW Animal Science 56(2): 249-255.

Kerekes, Viola et al. (2021). Trends in demography, genetics, and social structure of Przewalski’s horses in the Hortobagy National Park, Hungary over the last 22 years. Global Ecology and Conservation 25: e01407.

King, S. R. B. 2002a. Behavioural ecology of Przewalski horses (Equus przewalskii) reintroduced to Hustai National Park, Mongolia. Ph.D. thesis. Queen Mary, University of London.

King, S. R. B. 2002b. Home range and habitat use of free-ranging Przewalski horses at Hustai National Park, Mongolia. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 78: 10-11.

King, S. R. (2005). Extinct in the Wild to Endangered: the History of Przewalski’s Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) and its Future Conservation. Mongolian Journal of Biological Sciences 3(2): 37-41.

King, S. R. B. & Gurnell, J. 2005. Habitat use and spatial dynamics of takhi introduced to Hustai National Park, Mongolia. Biol. Conserv. 124: 277-290.

Kuntz, R., Kubalek, C., Ruf, T., Tataruch, F., and Arnold, W. (2006). Seasonal adjustment of energy budget in a large wild mammal, the Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) I. Energy intake. J. Exp. Biol. 209, 4557–4565.

Kuzmina, T. A., Zvegintsova, N. S. and Zharkikh, T. L. (2017). Gastrointestinal Parasite Community in a New Population of the Przewalski’s Horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in the Orenburg State Reserve, Russia. Vestnik zoologii 51(3): 243-250.

Linklater, W. L. 2000. Adaptive explanation in socio-ecology: lessons from the Equidae. Biol. Rev. 75: 1-20. [relevant citation?]

Liu S (2013). Study on habitat selectivities and community protection awareness of the reintroduced Equus przewalskii in Mt. Kalamaili Ungulate Nature Reserve. PhD, Xinjiang University, Urumqi, China.

Meng YP, Hu DF, Chen JL (2007). Studies on the food plants and foraging strategy of released Przewalski horse. In: Abstract Book of Fourth National Ecology and Conservation of Wildlife Symposium (in Chinese).

Mohr, Erna. (1971). The Asiatic Wild Horse. London: J. A. Allen and Co.

Oakenfull, E. A., Lim, H. N. & Ryder, O. A. 2000. A survey of equid mitochondrial DNA: Implications for the evolution, genetic diversity and conservation of Equus. Cons. Gen. 1: 41-55.

Pohlin, Friederike et al. (2017). Seasonal Variations in Heart Rate Variability as an Indicator of Stress in Free-Ranging Pregnant Przewalski's Horses (E. ferus przewalskii) within the Hortobágy National Park in Hungary. Frontiers in Physiology 8: 664.

Robert, N., Walzer, C., Ruegg, S., Kaczensky, P., Ganbaatar, O. & Stauffer, C. 2004. Mortality of takhis in Takhin Tal. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 65.

Ruegg, S. 2004. Biology and epidemioligy of equine piroplasmoses in Takhin Tal. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 62.

Ryder, O. A. (1993). Przewalski's horse: prospects for reintroduction into the wild. Conserv. Biol. 7, 13–15.

Ryder, O. 1994. Genetic studies of Przewalski’s horses and their impact on conservation. In L. Boyd and K. Houpt (ed.): Przewalski’s horse. The history and biology of an endangered species. SUNY, Albany, NY.

Ryder, O. A., and Wedemeyer, E. A. (1982). A cooperative breeding programme for the Mongolian wild horse Equus przewalskii in the United States. Biol. Conserv. 22, 259–271.

Schein, E. 1988. Equine babesiosis. In M. Ristic (ed.): Babesiosis of domestic animals and man. CRC Press, Inc., Boca Raton, Florida, pp. 197208.

Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.

Seetah, Krish, Cardini, Andrea and Barker, Graeme. (2016). A 'long-fuse domestication' of the horse? Tooth shape suggests explosive change in 2 modern breeds compared to extinct populations and living Przewalski horses. The Holocene 26(8): 1326-1333.

Sen, Zang et al. (2017). Food patch particularity and forging strategy of reintroduced Przewalski’s horse in North Xinjiang, China. Turkish Journal of Zoology 41. doi:10.3906/zoo-1509-9

K. Slivinska, D. Klich, N. Yasynetska and M. ┼╗ygowska. (2020). The effects of seasonality and group size on fecal egg counts in wild Przewalski’s horses (Equus ferus przewalskii, Poljakov, 1881) in the Chernobyl Exclusion Zone, Ukraine during 2014 – 2018. Helminthologia 57(4): 314-321. [Abstract]

Souris, A. 2004. Behavioural observations of a newly released takhi group in Takhin Tal, Great Gobi B Strictly Protected Area. Mong. J. Biol. Sci. 2: 6.

Souris, A. C., Kaczensky, P., Julliard, R., and Walzer, C. (2007). Time budget-, behavioral synchrony- and body score development of a newly released Przewalski's horse group Equus ferus przewalskii, in the Great Gobi B strictly protected area in SW Mongolia. Appl. Anim. Behav. Sci. 107, 307–321.

Tang, L. et al. (2020). Drug efficacy of ivermectin against primary nematodes parasitizing captive Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) after ten years of annually treatment. Helminthologia. 57(1): 57-62.

Tarav, Munkhbat et al. (2017). Problems in the Protection of Reintroduced Przewalski’s Horses (Equus ferus przewalskii) Caused by Piroplasmosis. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 53(4): [5 pp.].

Taylor, William Timothy Treal and Barrón-Ortiz, Christina Isabelle. (2021). Rethinking the evidence for early horse domestication at Botai. Scientific Reports 11: 7440.

Tegetmeier, N. B. and Sutherland, C. L. (1895). Horses, Asses, Zebras, Mules and Mule Breeding. London: Horace Cox.

van Dierendonck, M. & Wallis de Vries, M. F. 1996. Ungulate reintroductions: experiences with the takhi or Przewalski horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Mongolia. Consv. Biol. 10: 728-740. 

Vanwezer, Nils et al. (In Press, 2021). Hunting, herding, and people in the rock art of Mongolia: New discoveries in the Gobi-Altai Mountains. Archaeological Research in Asia. doi:

Wakefield, S., Knowles, J., Zimmermann, W. & van Dierendonck , M. 2002. Status and action plan for the Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus przewalskii). In P. Moehlman (ed.): Equids: Zebras, Asses, and Horses: Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan. IUCN, Gland Switzerland and Cambridge, pp. 82-92.

Wakefield, S., Zimmermann, W., and Van Dierendonck, M. C. (2002). “Status and action plan for the przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii),” in Equids: Zebras, Asses and Horses. IUCN/SCC Equid Specialist Group, ed P. Moehlman (Cambridge: IUCN Publication Services Unit), 82–92.

Walzer, C., Baumgartner, Ruth et al. (2000?). Medical considerations in the reintroduction of the Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) to the Dzungarian Gobi, Mongolia. European Association of Zoo and Wildlife Veterinarians (EAZWV), third scientific meeting, May 31st-June 4th, 2000, Paris France. pp. 147-150.

Walzer, C., Stalder, G., Petit, T., Sos, E., Molnar, V., Brabender, K., et al. (2009). “Surgical field anesthesia in Przewalski's horse (Equus ferus przewalskii) in Hortobagy national park,” in Hungary AAZV Annual Conference. Available online at:

Wang, J. J. (2004). Studies on the Comparative Behavior between Stalled and Reintroduced Przewalski Horse. Beijing, China: Beijing Forestry University. (in Chinese)

Yuan, Junxia et al. (2020). Mitochondrial genomes of Late Pleistocene caballine horses from China belong to a separate clade. Quaternary Science Reviews 250: 106691. doi: [Abstract]

Zimmermann, W. (2005). Przewalski's horses on the track to reintroduction- various projects compared. Z. Kölner Zoo 48, 183–209.

Zimmermann, W., Brabender, K., and Kolter, L. (2009a). A Przewalski's Horse Population in a Unique European Steppe Reserve – the Hortobágy Nationalpark in Hungary, Symposium proceedings Equus. Praha Zoo 257–288. Available online at:


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