The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Coelodonta antiquitatis Blumenbach, 1799

Woolly rhino(ceros)



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Rhinoceros tichorhinus Cuvier, 1812; Rhinoceros manchuricus Ishijima, 1939; Gryphus antiquitatus Blumenbach, 1799; Coelodonta jacuticus Russanov, 1968; Coelodonta antiquitatis pristinus; Coelodonta antiquitatis humilis


Conservation Status

Last record: Late Pleistocene





An isolated record from the Holocene of China exists (Chia & Wei, 1980). However, it has not been widely accepted.


Biology & Ecology




UHMP 43 (nasal horn)






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Boeskorov, Gennady G., Lazarev, P. A., Sher, A. V. et al. (2011). Woolly rhino discovery in the lower Kolyma River. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(17-18) 2262-2272. [Abstract]

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Chia, L. P. and Wei, Q. (1980). Some animal fossils from the Holocene in N. China. Verterb. PalAsiatica 18(4): 327-333. (in Chinese with English summary) [a possible Holocene record of C. antiquitatus]

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Diedrich, Cajus G. (2006). By ice age spotted hyenas protracted, cracked, nibbled and chewed skeleton remains of Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1807) from the Lower Weichselian (Upper Pleistocene) open air prey deposit site Bad Wildungen-Biedensteg (Hessia, NW Germany). Journal of Taphonomy 4(4): 173-205.

Diedrich, Cajus G. (2008a). A skeleton of an injured Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach 1807) from the Upper Pleistocene of north-western Germany. Cranium 25-1: 1-16.

Diedrich, Cajus G. (2008b). Eingeschleppte und benagte Knochenreste von Coelodonta antiquitatis (Blumenbach, 1807) aus dem oberpleistozänen Fleckenhyänenhorst Perick-Höhlen im Nordsauerland (NW Deutschland) und Beitrag zur Taphonomie von Wollnashornknochen in Westfalen. Mitteilungen der Höhlen und Karstforscher 2008(4): 100-117.

Diedrich, Cajus G. (2012). Late Pleistocene Crocuta crocuta spelaea (Goldfuss, 1823) clans as prezewalski horse hunters and woolly rhinoceros scavengers at the open air commuting den and contemporary Neanderthal camp site Westeregeln (central Germany). Journal of Archaeological Science 39(6): 1749-1767.

Diedrich, Cajus G. (2021). Thick skin cutters of Siberian frozen mummies—The coevolutionary adaptation of Eurasian Ice Age spotted hyenas. Acta Zoologica. doi: [Abstract]

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JunXia, Yuan, GuiLian, Sheng, XinDong, Hou, XiaoYan, Shuang, Jian, Yi, Hong, Yang and XuLong, Lai. (2014). Ancient DNA sequences from Coelodonta antiquitatis in China reveal its divergence and phylogeny. Science China Earth Sciences 57(3): 388-396. [Abstract]

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Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. (2010). Extinction of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) in Eurasia: Review of chronological and environmental issues. Boreas 39: 247-261.

Kuzmin, Yaroslav V. (2013). Comment on: “Extinction chronology of the woolly rhinoceros Coelodonta antiquitatis in the context of late Quaternary megafaunal extinctions in northern Eurasia” by A.J. Stuart and A.M. Lister [Quat. Sci. Rev. 51 (2012), 1–17]. Quaternary Science Reviews 62: 142-143. [Abstract]

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