The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database


Equus quagga quagga Boddaert, 1785:160

Quagga, iqwara (Xhosa), kwagga (Afrikaans)

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Equus burchelli quagga Boddaert, 1785:160; couagga Desmarest, 1822; danielli Pocock, 1904; greyi Lydekker, 1902; lorenzi Lydekker, 1902; qouagga Lesson, 1827; quaccha Gray, 1827; trouessarti Camerano, 1908

 

Conservation Status

Last record: 1872 (Gippoliti et al. 2017); 12 August 1883 (Willoughby, 1966)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

Distribution

South Africa

 

Biology & Ecology

 

 

Hypodigm

The Grant Museum of Zoology:

Z581 (mounted skeleton; female)

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Boddaert, P. (1785). Elenchus animalium. Volumen 1: Sistens quadrupedia huc usque nota eorumque varietatis. Rotterdam: C. R. Hake.

 

Other references:

Anonymous. (1833). List of the animals in the gardens of the Zoological Society: with notices respecting them, and a plan of the gardens, showing the buildings and enclosures in which the animals are kept: June 1833. London: Printed by Richard Taylor. [p. 49]

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van Bruggen, A. C. (1959). Illustrated notes on some extinct South African ungulates. South African Journal of Science 55: 197-200.

H.A. Bryden, Kloof and Karroo: Sport, Legend and Natural History in Cape Colony, with a Notice of the Game Birds, and of the Present Distribution of Antelopes and Larger Game (London, New York: Longmans, Green, 1889), 401. ).

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Cape Argus (South Africa), 8 March 1952 [report of a quagga’s skull valued at £25,000 for sale]

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Freeman, Carol. (2009). Ending Extinction: The Quagga, the Thylacine and the “Smart Human”, pp. 235-256. In: Gigliotti, Carol. Leonardo’s Choice: Genetic Technologies and Animals. New York: Springer.

Fuller, Errol. (2013). Lost Animals: Extinction and the Photographic Record. London: Bloomsbury Publishing.

M. George, and O.A. Ryder. (1986). ‘Mitochondrial DNA Evolution in the Genus Equus’, Molecular Biology and Evolution, 3(6): 535-546.

Gippoliti, Spartaco, Cotterill, Fenton P. D., Zinner, Dietmar and Groves, Colin P. (2017). Impacts of taxonomic inertia for the conservation of African ungulate diversity:an overview. Biological Reviews. doi: 10.1111/brv.12335

Gmelin, J. F. (1788). Caroli a Linné, Systema naturae per regna tria naturae secundum classes, ordines, genera, species cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Tomus I. Lipsiae: Impensis Georg. Emmanuel Beer.

Goodwin, Harry A. and Goodwin, J. M. (1973). List of mammals which have become extinct or are possibly extinct since 1600. Int. Union Conserv. Nat. Occas. Pap. 8: 1-20.

R. Gordon Cumming, The Lion Hunter in South Africa: Five Years of a Hunter’s Life in the Far Interior of South Africa (London: John Murray, 1855), 68.

Groves, Colin P. and Bell, C. H. (2004). New investigations on the taxonomy of the zebras genus Equus,subgenus Hippotigris. Mamm. Biol. 69: 182-96.

Grub, Peter. (1999). Types and type localities of ungulates named from southern Africa. Koedoe 42(2): 13-45.

Hack, M. A., East, R. and Rubenstein, D. I. (2008). Equus quagga ssp. quagga. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.1. (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 17 July 2011.

Harley, E. H., Lardner, C., Gregor, M., Wooding, B. and Knight, M. H. (2010). The Restoration of the Quagga; 24 years of Selective Breeding, pp. 78-87. In: Slomski, R. (ed.). Restoration of Endangered and Extinct Animals. Poznan, Poland: Poznan University of Life Sciences Press.

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Heuvelmans, Bernard. (1986). Annotated Checklist of Apparently Unknown Animals with Which Cryptozoology Is Concerned. Cryptozoology 5: 1-26.

Heywood, Peter. (2013). The Quagga and Science: What Does the Future Hold for This Extinct Zebra? Perspectives in Biology and Medicine 56(1): 53-64.

Heywood, Peter. (2015). The micro-politics of macromolecules in the taxonomy and restoration of Quaggas. Kronos 41(1): 314-337.

Higuchi R. G., Bowman, B., Freiberger, M., Ryder, O. A and Wilson, A. C. (1984). DNA sequences from the quagga, and extinct member of the horse family. Nature 312: 282–284.

Higuchi, R. G., Wrischnik, L. A., Oakes, E., Matthew, G., Benton, Tong and Wilson, A. C. (1987). Mitochondrial DNA of the extinct quagga: relatedness and extent of postmortem change. J. Molec. Evol. 25: 283-287. [Abstract]

Huber, W. (1991a). Ein bisher unveröffentlichtes Foto eines lebenden Equus quagga quagga Gmelin, 1788 – Spixiana 14: 235-236. [A hitherto unpublished photo of a living Equus quagga quagga Gmelin, 1788].

Huber , W. (1991b). "New" Quagga photograph discovered. African Wildlife 45(4), July/August.

Huber, W. (1992). Das Münchner Quagga – eine zoologische Rarität (Mammalia, Equidae). Chronik der Zoologischen Staatssammlung München. Spixiana, Suppl. 17: 155-160.

Huber , W. (1994). Dokumentation der fünf bekannten Lebendaufnahmen vom Quagga, Equus quagga quagga Gmelin, 1788 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae) – Spixiana 17: 193-199. [Documentation of the five known photographs from living quaggas, Equus quagga quagga Gmelin, 1788 (Mammalia, Perissodactyla, Equidae)].

Hughes, Austin L. (1988). The Quagga Case: Molecular Evolution of an Extinct Species. Tree 3.5: 95-96.

Klein, R. G. and Cruz-Uribe, K. (1996). The identification of Equus skulls to species, with particular reference to the craniometric and systematic affinities of the extinct South African quagga, pp. 589-629. In Palaeoecology and Palaeoenvironments of Late Cenozoic Mammals: Tributes to the Caerer of C.S. Churcher, eds K.M. Stewart and K.L. Seymour. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Klein, R. G. and Cruz-Uribe, K. (1999). Craniometry of the genus Equus and the taxonomic aļ¬nities of the extinct South African quagga. South African Journal of Science 95(2): 81-86.

Kowalczyk, Iwona. (year?). How science supports fiction, or to which extent technologies have advanced the progress towards the vision of de – extinction. Unpublished?

Jennifer A Leonard, Nadin Rohland, Scott Glaberman, Robert C Fleischer, Adalgisa Caccone and Michael Hofreiter. (2005). A rapid loss of stripes: the evolutionary history of the extinct quagga. Biology Letters 1(3): 291-295.

Landsman, Anne. (2005). The Quagga. The Believer 3.8: [pagination?].

Larkin, Nigel R. and Porro, Laura B. (In Press, 2016). Three legs good, four legs better: making a quagga whole again with 3D printing. Collection Forum. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.14351/2015.08.15 [Abstract]

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Lowenstein, J. M. and Ryder, O. A. (1985). Immunological systematics of the extinct quagga (Equidae). Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences  41: 1192-1193.

B. Lundholm, ‘Is Rebirth of the Quagga Possible?’, African WildLife, 5, 3, September 1951, 209–12

Max, D. T. (2006). Can You Revive an Extinct Animal? New York Times, 1 January.

McNeil, Donald G. (1997). Brave Quest of Africa Hunt: Bringing Back Extinct Quagga. New York Times, 16 September.

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R. Parsons, C. Aldous-Mycock and M.R. Perrin, ‘A Genetic Index for Stripe-Pattern Reduction in the Zebra: The Quagga Project’,  South African Journal of Wildlife Research,  37, 2, 2007, 105–116

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Winstead, R. (2000, October 20). In South Africa the Quagga Project breeds success. Genome News Network.

The Quagga Project. https://www.quaggaproject.org/index.htm

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2013/nov/18/the-mystery-of-the-species-hopping-three-legged-quagga

https://www.pfeil-verlag.de/04biol/pdf/spix34_1_03.pdf

https://twilightbeasts.wordpress.com/2015/08/24/seeking-redemption/

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/7738/equus-quagga

 

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