The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Equus conversidens Owen, 1869

Mexican horse



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Equus alaskae?; Equus semiplicatus?


Conservation Status

Last Record: Holocene?















Original scientific description:

Owen, Richard. (1869). On fossil remains of Equines from Central and South America referable to Equus conversidens Ow., E. tau Ow., and E. arcidens Ow.: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 159: 559-573.


Other references:

Alberdi, María Teresa, Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín, Marín-Leyva, Alejandro H. and Polaco, Oscar J. (2014). Study of Cedral Horses and their place in the Mexican Quaternary. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 31(2): 221-237.

Ayer, M. Y. 1936. The archaeological and faunal material from Williams Cave, Guadalupe Mountains, Texas. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, 88:599-619, 1 pl. [Abstract]

Azzaroli, A. (1998). The genus Equus in North America: The Pleistocene species = Le genre Equus en Amérique du Nord - Les espèces du Pléistocène. Palaeontographia Italica 85: 1-60. [Abstract]

Bravo-Cuevas, Victor Manuel and Jiménez-Hidalgo, Eduardo. (2018). Advances on the Paleobiology of Late Pleistocene mammals from central and southern Mexico, pp. 277-313. In: Huard, Gaeten and Gareau, Jeannine (eds.). The Pleistocene: Geography, Geology, and Fauna. New York: Nova Science Publishers.

Christina I. Barrón-Ortiz , Antonia T. Rodrigues, Jessica M. Theodor, Brian P. Kooyman, Dongya Y. Yang and Camilla F. Speller. (2017). Cheek tooth morphology and ancient mitochondrial DNA of late Pleistocene horses from the western interior of North America: Implications for the taxonomy of North American Late Pleistocene Equus. PLoS ONE12(8): e0183045.

Churcher, C. S. (2019). Pleistocene Mammals From Extinction Cave, Belize. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences. doi: [Abstract]

Cisneros, Juan Carlos. (2005). New Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from El Salvador. Revista Brasileira de Paleontologia 8(3): 239-255.

Croxen et al. 2007. Pleistocene geology and paleontology of the Colorado River Delta at Golfo de Santa Clara, Sonora, Mexico. Pp. 84-89, in Wild, scenic & rapid—a trip down the Colorado River trough (Robert E. Reynolds, ed.). The 2007 Desert Symposium field guide and abstracts from proceedings, California State University, Desert Studies Consortium, and LSA Associates, Inc.

Czaplewski, N. J., J. I. Mead, C. J. Bell, W. D. Peachey, and T-L. Ku. 1999. Papago Springs Cave revisited, Part II: Vertebrate paleofauna. Occasional Papers of the Oklahoma Museum of Natural History 5:1–41.

Walter W. Dalquest and Jack T. Hughes, “The Pleistocene Horse, Equus conversidens,” American Midland Naturalist. Vol. 74, No. 2 (Oct., 1965), pp. 408-417. [Abstract]

Fiedel, S. 2009. Sudden deaths: The chronology of terminal Pleistocene megafaunal extinction. Pp. 21-37, in American megafaunal extinctions at the end of the Pleistocene (G. Haynes, ed.). Springer Science + Business Media, 201 pp.

Harris, Arthur H. (1987). Reconstruction of Mid Wisconsin Environments in Southern New Mexico. National Geographic Research 3(2): 142-151.

Harris, A. H. 1989. The New Mexican late Wisconsin—east versus west. National Geographic Research 5:205-217.

Harris, A. H. 1993. Quaternary vertebrates of New Mexico. Pp. 179-197, in Vertebrate Paleontology in New Mexico, New Mexico Museum of Natural History, Bulletin 2:i-vii, 1-338.

Harris, A. H. 2003. The Pleistocene vertebrate fauna from Pendejo Cave. Pp. 36-65, in Pendejo Cave (R. S. MacNeish and J. G. Libby, eds.), University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque, 526 pp.

Harris, A. H., and L. S. W. Porter. 1980. Late Pleistocene horses of Dry Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Journal of Mammalogy 61: 46-65.

Hibbard, Claude W. and Taylor, Dwight W. (1960). Two late Pleistocene faunas from southwestern Kansas. Contributions from the Museum of Paleontology, The University of Michigan 16(1): 1-223 pp., 16 pls., 18 figs.

Hills, Leonard V. and Harington, C. Richard. (2003). New radiocarbon dates for Columbian mammoth and Mexican horse from southern Alberta and the Lateglacial regional fauna. Quaternary Science Reviews 22(14): 1521-1523. [Abstract]

Jefferson, G. T. 1991a. A catalogue of Late Quaternary vertebrates from California. Part two: Mammals. Natural History Museum of Los Angeles County Technical Reports 7: 1-129.

Jefferson, G. T. 1991b. Rancholabrean age vertebrates from the southeastern Mojave Desert, California. Pp. 163-175, in Crossing the Borders: Quaternary Studies in Eastern California and Southwestern Nevada (R. E. Reynolds, compiler). MDQRC 1991 Special Publication, San Bernardino County Museum Association, Redlands, CA.

Jefferson, G. T., H. G. McDonald, and S. D. Livington. 2015. Catalogue of late Quaternary and Holocene fossil vertebrates from Nevada. Nevada State Museum, Occasional Papers no. 6a:iv + 86.

Lucas, Spencer G. (2008). Pleistocene mammals from Yeroconte, Honduras, pp. 403-407. In: Lucas, Spencer G. et al. (eds.). Neogene Mammals. New Mexico: New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 41.

Lundelius, E. L., Jr. 1972. Vertebrate remains from the gray sand. Pp. 148-163, in Blackwater locality no. 1. A stratified early man site in eastern New Mexico (J. J. Hester, ed.). Fort Burgwin Research Center Publication 8: 1-238.

McHorse, B. K., E. Byrd Davis, E. Scott, and D. L. Jenkins. 2016. What species of horse was coeval with North America's earliest humans in the Paisley Caves? Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1214595.

Morgan, G. S., and S. G. Lucas. 2005. Pleistocene vertebrate faunas in New Mexico from alluvial, fluvial, and lacustrine deposits. Pp. 185-248, in New Mexico's Ice Ages (Lucas, S. G., G. S. Morgan, and K. E. Zeigler, eds.). New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Bulletin 28:1-280.

Pasenko, M. R., and L. D. Agenbroad. 2012. Late Pleistocene mammalian fauna from Prescott Valley, west-central Arizona. Southwestern Naturalist 57(1): 74-86.

Pérez-Pérez, Alexis et al. (2021). Population dynamics of Equus conversidens (Perissodactyla, Equidae) from the late Pleistocene of Hidalgo (central Mexico): Comparison with extant and fossil equid populations. Journal of South American Earth Sciences 106: 103100. [Abstract]

Reynolds, R. E., R. L. Reynolds, C. J. Bell, and B. Pitzer. 1991. Vertebrate remains from Antelope Cave, Mescal Range, San Bernardino County, California. Pp. 107-109, in Crossing the Borders: Quaternary Studies in Eastern California and Southwestern Nevada (R. E. Reynolds, compiler). MDQRC 1991 Special Publication, San Bernardino County Museum Association, Redlands, CA.

Reynoso-Rosales, V.H., Montellano-Ballesteros, M. (1994). Revisión de los équidos de la Fauna Cedazo del Pleistoceno de Aguascalientes, México. Revista Mexicana de Ciencias Geológicas 11(1): 87-105.

Schultz, C. B. 1943. Some artifact sites of early man in the Great Plains and adjacent areas. American Antiquity 8(3):242-295.

Scott, E. 1996. The Small Horse from Valley Wells, San Bernardino County,California. Pp. 85-89, in R. E. Reynolds and J. Reynolds (editors), Punctuated chaos in the northeastern Mojave Desert. SBCM Association Quarterly 43(1, 2). San Bernardino County Museum Association, Redland, CA.

Smith, Kent S. and Cifelli, Richard M. (2000). A Synopsis of the Pleistocene Vertebrates of Oklahoma. Oklahoma Geological Survey Bulletin No. 147. University of Oklahoma, Norman.

Springer, K., E. Scott, C. Sagebiel, and L. K. Murray. 2009. The Diamond Valley Lake local fauna: Late Pleistocene vertebrates from inland southern California. Pp. 217-235, in Papers on geology, vertebrate paleontology, and biostratigraphy in honor of Michael O. Woodburne (L. G. Albright, III, ed.). Museum of Northern Arizona Bulletin 65, Flagstaff, Arizona.

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Tebedge, S. 1988. Paleontology and paleoecology of the Pleistocene mammalian fauna of Dark Canyon Cave, Eddy County, New Mexico. Ph.D. Dissertation, University of Texas at Austin, xxiv + 277 pp.

Waters, Michael R., Stafford, Thomas W. Jnr., Kooyman, Brian and Hills, L. V. (2015). Late Pleistocene horse and camel hunting at the southern margin of the ice-free corridor: Reassessing the age of Wally’s Beach, Canada. PNAS 112(14):  4263-4267.

White R. S., J. I. Mead, A. Baez, and S. L. Swift. 2010. Localidades de vertebrados fósiles del Neógeno (Mioceno, Plioceno y Pleistoceno): Una evaluación preliminar de la biodiversidad del pasado. Pp 51-72, in F. E. Molina-Freaner y T. R. Van Devender (eds.). Diversidad biológica de Sonora. UNAM, México.

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Wolberg, D. L. 1980. Pleistocene horse skull discovered. New Mexico Geology 2:29.