Myrmecobius fasciatus rufus Jones, 1923
Eastern (rusty) numbat, Rufous numbat (Archer, 1979:31), Southeastern numbat, Red myrmecobius (Waterhouse, 1846:149), Red shrew-mouse (Mitchell, 1838)
Taxonomy & Nomenclature
An invalid subspecies. Synonymous with the nominate subspecies.
Synonym/s: Myrmecobius rufus Jones, 1923
It is distinguishable from the nominate subspecies by a much richer coat (Jones, 1923), but otherwise seems morphologically identical to the latter. Assuming that this putative subspecies differs from the nominate only in coat colouration then a more parsimonious explanation of the variation present within M. fasciatus would be to invoke clinal variation as (Woinarski et al. 2014:18-19) do; the redness of the animals being an adaptation "which provides greater protection against avian predation where the soil is red in colour, as it is in much of central Australia" (Friend, 1989:14*). Though genetic analysis may find that they are in fact well differentiated from each other, exhibiting cryptic diversity.
* This quote is taken from page 14 of the [i]chapter[/i]. The actual pagination of the book is cumulative and thus will be different. However as I do not have access to a copy of the book I have had to rely on the pagination given in the online version of the chapter.
Last Record: Warburton Ranges, Western Australia, in 1950 (Calaby, 1960)
This extinct subspecies may have been first encountered by the famous explorer Thomas Mitchell sometime during his famous 1831-36 expeditions, who christened it Myrmecobius rufus (Mitchell, 1838). However, since he did not actually describe the species the name is considered a nomen nudum under current nomenclatural rules. And it was left to F. Wood Jones to formally describe the animal 85 years later (Jones, 1923:123).
According to (Tate, 1951), Waterhouse (1846:149) was the first to propose the name rufus. However, Waterhouse clearly states that:
"Major Mitchell gives this name to an animal discovered during one of his surveying expeditions in Australia, and which was called the "Red shrewmouse" by the men composing his party. Not having taken notes, the author applies the above name to the animal with hesitation." (Waterhouse, 1846:149-150).
According to (Troughton, 1957:56) they were "fairly well known in the early days [of settlement], one was kept alive for several weeks on milk and sugar by the wife of Sir George Grey, an early Governor of South Australia." Grey's wife was named Eliza, and if these interesting events took place during his Governorship then these "several weeks" occurred sometime during the period 15 May 1841-25 October 1845.
Rediscovery and "second" extinction
This subspecies was considered to be extinct before Hedley Herbert Finlayson's specimens from South Australia's Everard Range (Finlayson, 1933). However, though the subspecies was thus rediscovered, the last known specimen of the 'eastern' race to be collected was apparently in the Warburton Ranges of Western Australia in 1950 (Endangered Species Committee, 1983:21). So it seems that this subspecies has succumbed to extinction for good, reminiscent of [i]Caloprymnus campestris[/i], in whose story Finlayson is also so much a part (both taxa were reportedly rediscovered by Finlayson, but are now considered extinct). The reason/s for its extinction are unknown, but predation by introduced generalist carnivores (foxes, cats and feral dogs (possibly including dingoes)) was probably a factor, as well as habitat modification by both the early settlers and introduced species. Predation on the living subspecies of numbat by foxes has been implied (Dickman, 1996), and is therefore likely to have been a factor in the decline of [i]M. f. rufus[/i] as well.
South Australia, New South Wales and Western Australia, Australia
Troughton (1957:55) gives the former distribution of M. f. rufus as:
"South Australia eastward of the Nullabor Plain and on Eyre Peninsula, and across to western New South Wales...around the junction of the Murray and Darling rivers. Occurring near Adelaide...[and] the Everard Range in the north-west of South Australia"
If the 1950 record from W.A.'s Warburton Range is correct, then eastern Western Australia must also be added to the list of former habitats which this curious and enigmatic numbat inhabited.
According to (Archer, 1979:31) the last records of this species in South Australia and New South Wales were 1924 and 1857 respectively.
Original scientific description:
Jones, F. Wood (1923). The Mammals of South Australia. Part 1. The Monotremes and the Carnivorous Marsupials (The Ornithodelphia and didactylous Didelphia). Adelaide: Government Printer, 131 pp.
Aitken, P. F. (1976). Vertebrate type-specimens in the South Australian Museum. V. Mammals. Records of the South Australian Museum 17: 169-219.
Anonymous. (1964). A preliminary list of rare mammals including those believed to be rare but concerning which detailed information is still lacking. IUCN Bulletin 11(Special Supplement): 4 pp.
Archer, Michael. (1979). The status of Australian dasyurids, thylacinids and myrmecobiids, pp. 29-43. In: Tyler, Michael J. (ed.). The Status of Endangered Australasian Wildlife. Adelaide: Royal Zoological Society of South Australia.
Burbidge, A. A. and Fuller, P. J. (1979). Mammals of the Warburton Region, Western Australia. Records of the Western Australian Museum 8(1): 57-73.
Calaby, J. H. (1960). Observation on the Banded Ant-eater Myrmecobius f. fasciatus Waterhouse (Marsupialia), with particular reference to its food habits. Proc. Zool. Soc. Lond. 135(2): 183-207.
Cooper, Christine Elizabeth. (2011). Myrmecobius fasciatus (Dasyuromorphia: Myrmecobiidae). Mammalian Species 43(1): 129-140.
Dickman, Chris R. (1996). Impact of exotic generalist predators on the native fauna of Australia. Wildlife Biology 2: 185-195.
Endangered Species Committee of the Total Environment Centre. (1983). Our Wildlife in Peril. Frenchs Forest, NSW: A H & A W Reed.
Finlayson, Hedley Herbert. (1933). On the eremian representative of Myrmecobius fasciatus (Waterhouse). Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia 57: 203-205.
Flannery, Timothy. (1990). Australia's Vanishing Mammals: Endangered and Extinct Native Species. Sydney: RD Press. 192 pp.
Friend, J. A. (1989). Myrmecobiidae (chapter 22), [pagination?]. In: Walton, D. W. and Richardson, B. J. (eds.). Fauna of Australia, Volume 1B. Canberra: Australia Government Publishing Service.
Friend, J. A., Fuller, P. J. and Davis, J. A. (1982). The Numbat in central Australia. SWANS 12(3): 21-26. [13: 3-9?]
Groves, Colin P. (2005). Order Dasyuromorphia, pp. 23-37. In: Mammal species of the world: a taxonomic and geographic reference (D. E. Wilson and D. M. Reeder, eds.), 3rd ed. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, Maryland.
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Philpott, C. M. and Smyth, D. R. (1967). A contribution to our knowledge of some rare mammals from inland Australia. Transactions of The Royal Society of South Australia 91: 115-134. [failed to find this species during 24 weeks of field work in "northern South Australia and adjoining areas"]
Scott, Peter (ed.). (1965). Section XIII. Preliminary List of Rare Mammals and Birds, pp. 155-237. In: The Launching of a New Ark. First Report of the President and Trustees of the World Wildlife Fund. An International Foundation for saving the world's wildlife and wild places 1961-1964. London: Collins.
Tate, G. H. H. (1951). The Banded Anteater, Myrmecobius Waterhouse (Marsupialia). American Museum Novitates 1521: 1-8.
Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1957). Furred Animals of Australia, 6th edition. Sydney: Angus & Robertson.
Troughton, Ellis Le Geyt. (1967). Furred mammals of Australia. Sydney: Angus and Robertson.
Wakefield, N. A. (1966a). Mammals of the Blandowski Expedition to north-western Victoria. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria 79(2): 371-391.
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Waterhouse, George Robert. (1841). Marsupialia, or Pouched Animals (Mammalia, vol. XI). In: Jardine, William (ser. ed.). The Naturalist's Library (vol. XXIV). Edinburgh: W.H. Lizars / London: Henry G. Bohn. xvi + 324 pp.
Waterhouse, George Robert. (1846). A Natural History of the Mammalia. Volume 1, containing the Order Marsupiata or pouched animals. London: Hippolyte Baillière. 553 pp + 20 pls.
Woinarski, John, Burbidge, Andrew and Harrison, Peter. (2014). The Action Plan for Australian Mammals 2012. Collingwood: CSIRO Publishing. 1056 pp.