Carcharhinus hemiodon (Müller & Henle, 1839)
Taxonomy & Nomenclature
Last record: 1979
Rediscovered in 2007
IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered (Possibly Extinct)
"This is one of the species which used to be sporadic occurrence prior to 1970’s but since early 1980’s it was not seen in any landing centres in Pakistan in last 40 years indicating that it may be locally extinct. This species is known to occur in rivers but there is no authentic record of its occurrence in the River Indus. Elsewhere this species is known from Gulf of Oman, India, Sri Lanka as well as scattered localities from the eastern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific ranging from India to New Guinea. According to Notarbartolo-di-Sciara and Jabado (2021), it is small and rare Indian–West Pacific inshore shark which also used to occur in the Arabian Sea, but it has not been recorded since 1979. There are a few recent records of their presence in Sri Lanka and India, however, it is assessed to be Critically Endangered (CR) by IUCN Red List. It is believed to locally extinct in some areas of its distribution."
(Moazzam & Osmany, 2022:207)
Indo-West Pacific Ocean
Biology & Ecology
"Little is known about its biology, however, considering shape of its teeth and habitat of occurrence, it can be speculated to consume small fishes, cephalopods (cuttlefish/squid) and crustaceans (Compagno and Niem, 1998). Like other sharks, its mode of reproduction ought to be aplacental viviparity (Dulvy and Reynolds, 1997)."
(Moazzam & Osmany, 2022:207)
Original scientific description:
Müller, J. and Henle, F. G. J. (1839). Systematische Beschreibung der Plagiostomen (Veit, Berlin), pp. 29-102.
Compagno, L. J. V. (1984). FAO species catalogue. Vol. 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. FAO Fisheries Synopsis No. 125, Volume 4, Part 1.
Compagno, L. J. V. (In prep). b. Sharks of the World. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the shark species known to date. Volume 3. (Carcharhiniformes). FAO Species Catalogue for Fisheries Purposes No. 1, Vol.3. FAO, Rome.
Compagno, L. J. V. and Niem, V. H. (1998). Carcharhinidae. Requiem sharks, pp. 1312-1360. In: Carpenter, K. E. and Niem, V. H. (eds.). FAO Identification Guide for Fishery Purposes. The Living Marine Resources of the Western Central Pacific. Rome: FAO.
Compagno, L. J. V., White, W. and Fowler, S. (SSG Australia & Oceania Regional Workshop, March 2003). (2003). Carcharhinus hemiodon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2003: e.T39369A10185838. http://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2003.RLTS.T39369A10185838.en. Downloaded on 16 December 2015.
Hilton-Taylor, C. (2000). 2000 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, UK.
Moazzam, Muhammad and Osmany, Hamid Badar. (2022). Species composition, commercial landings, distribution and some aspects of biology of shark (Class Pisces) of Pakistan: medium-sized demersal sharks. Int. J. Biol. Biotech. 19(2): 197-219.
Munro, I.S.R. 1958. The fishes of the New Guinea region. A check-list of the fishes of New Guinea incorporating records of species collected by the Fisheries Survey Vessel "Fairwind" during the years 1948 to 1950. Territory of Papua and New Guinea Fisheries Bulletin No. 1. Department of Agriculture, Stock and Fisheries, Port Moresby.
Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, G. and Jabado, R. W. (2021). Sharks and Rays of the Arabian Sea and Adjacent Waters, pp. 443-477. In: Jawad, L. (ed.). The Arabian Seas: Biodiversity, Environmental Challenges and Conservation Measures. Springer Nature Switzerland AG.
THE CONSERVATION STATUS OF MARINE BIODIVERSITY OF THE PACIFIC ISLANDS OF OCEANIA https://portals.iucn.org/library/sites/library/files/documents/RL-2017-001.pdf