Cygnus sumnerensis Forbes, 1890

Sumner’s swan, Poūwa



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Chenopis sumnerensis Forbes, 1890; Cygnus sumnerensis Forbes, 1890; Cygnus atratus sumnerensis Forbes, 1890


Conservation Status


Last record: Holocene



New Zealand


Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Forbes, H. O. (1890). New extinct swan in New Zealand. Ibis [1890]: 264-265.


Other references:

Dawson, Elliot W. (1949). Sub-fossil remains from Lake Grassmere. Notornis 3(5): 132-133.

Dawson, Elliot W. (1958). Re-discoveries of the New Zealand subfossil birds named by H. O. Forbes. Ibis 100: 232-237.

Nicolas J. Rawlence, Afroditi Kardamaki, Luke J. Easton, Alan J. D. Tennyson, R. Paul Scofield, Jonathan M. Waters. (2017). Ancient DNA and morphometric analysis reveal extinction and replacement of New Zealand's unique black swans. Proceedings of the Royal Society B Biological Sciences 284(1859): [pagination?]. [Abstract]

Trotter, M. M. (1965). Avian remains from North Otago archaeological sites. Notornis 12(3): 176-178.

Worthy, Trevor H. (1998). A remarkable fossil and archaeological avifauna from Marfells Beach, Lake Grassmere, South Island, New Zealand. Records of the Canterbury Museum 12(1): 79-176.

Worthy, Trevor H. and Holdaway, Richard N. (2002). The Lost World of the Moa. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

Wragg, Graham M. (1981). The birds of Canterbury: history and present status. A dissertation presented as a requirement for the Diploma in Parks and Recreation (National Parks option). Lincoln College, New Zealand.


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