The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Lithobates onca (Cope, 1875)

Relict leopard frog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Rana onca Cope, 1875


Conservation Status

Last record: 1950

Rediscovered in 1995

IUCN RedList status: Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Behler, J.L. and King, F.W. 1979. The Audubon Society Field Guide to North American Reptiles and Amphibians. New York.

Blackburn, L., Nanjappa, P. and Lannoo, M.J. 2001. An Atlas of the Distribution of U.S. Amphibians. Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Bradford, D.F., Jaeger, J.R. and Jennings, R.D. 2004. Population status and distribution of a decimated amphibian, the relict leopard frog (Rana onca). Southwestern Naturalist: 218-228.

Bradford, D.F., Jennings, R.D. and Jaeger, J.R. 2005. Rana onca Cope, 1875(b); relict leopard frog. In: Lannoo, M.J. (ed.), Status and Conservation of U.S. Amphibians, pp. 567-568. University of California Press, Berkeley, California.

Jef Jaeger, David Bradford, Geoffrey Hammerson. 2004. Lithobates onca. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2004: e.T19178A8848232. Downloaded on 12 February 2017.

Jaeger, J.R., Riddle, B.R., Jennings, R.D. and Bradford, D.F. 2001. Rediscovering Rana onca: evidence for phylogenetically distinct leopard frogs from the border region of Nevada, Utah, and Arizona. Copeia 2001: 339-354.

Jennings, M.R. 1988. Rana onca Cope, relict leopard frog. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 1-2.

Jennings, R.D., Riddle, B.R. and Bradford, D. 1995. Rediscovery of Rana onca, the relict leopard frog, in southern Nevada with comments on the systematic relationships of some leopard frogs (Rana pipiens complex) and the status of populations along the Virgin River. Unpublished report.

Saumure, Raymond A. et al. (2021). Leaping from extinction: Rewilding the relict leopard frog in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA, pp. 76-81. In: Soorae, P. S. (ed.) (2021). Global conservation translocation perspectives: 2021. Case studies from around the globe. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN SSC Conservation Translocation Specialist Group, Environment Agency - Abu Dhabi and Calgary Zoo, Canada. xiv + 353 pp. 

Stebbins, R.C. 1985. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians. Second Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.

Stebbins, R.C. 2003. A Field Guide to Western Reptiles and Amphibians, Third Edition. Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, Massachusetts.


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