The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Rhinoderma rufum Philippi, 1902

Halfswimmer frog, Chile Darwin’s frog



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Heminectes rufus Philippi, 1902


Conservation Status

Last record: 1978; 1980 (Penna & Voloso, 1990; Soto-Azat et al. 2013)

IUCN RedList status: Critically Endangered





Biology & Ecology










Original scientific description:

Philippi, R. A. (1902). Suplemento de los batraquios chilenos descritos en la historia física y política de Chile de don Claudio Gay. Santiago: Imprenta de Enrique Blanchard Chessi. 161 p.


Other references:

Azat, Claudio et al. (2020). A flagship for Austral temperate forest conservation: an action plan for Darwin's frogs brings key stakeholders together. Oryx 55(3): 356-363.

Bourke J., Mutschmann F., Ohst T., Ulmer P., Gutsche A., Busse K., Werning H., Böhme W. (2010). Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in Darwin´s frog (Rhinoderma spp.) in Chile. Dis. Aquat. Organ. Special 4:92(2-3): 217-221.

Bourke, Johara, Busse, Klaus and BÖhme, Wolfgang. (2012). Searching for a lost frog (Rhinoderma rufum): identification of the most promising areas for future surveys and possible reasons of its enigmatic decline. North-Western Journal Of Zoology 8(1): 99-106.

Busse, K. (2002). Darwin's Frogs in Danger; Rhinoderma, are there any Rhinoderma rufum left in Chile? Reptilia 25: 63–67.

Formas, J. Ramon. (1976). New karyological data of Rhinoderma: the chromosomes of Rhinoderma rufum. Experientia 32(8): 1000–1002.

Formas, J. Ramon. (2013). External morphology, chondrocranium, hyobranchial skeleton, and external and internal oral features of Rhinoderma rufum (Anura, Rhinodermatidae). Zootaxa 3641(4): 395–400.

Formas, J. Ramon, Pugin, E. and Jorquera, B. (1975). La identidad del batracio chileno Heminectes rufus Philippi 1902. Physis (Argentina), Sección C 89: 147-157. [volume 34?; pages 94-117?]

Jorquera B, Garrido O, Pugin E (1982) Comparative studies of the digestive tract development between Rhinoderma darwinii and R. rufum. J Herpetol 16: 204-214.

Penna, M. and Veloso, A. (1990). Vocal diversity in frogs of the South American temperate forest. J. Herpetol. 24(1): 23-32[33?].

Soto-Azat C, Valenzuela-Sánchez A, Clarke BT, Busse K, Ortiz JC, et al. (2013). Is Chytridiomycosis Driving Darwin’s Frogs to Extinction? PLoS ONE 8(11): e79862.

Soto-Azat C, Valenzuela-Sánchez A, Collen B, Rowcliffe JM, Veloso A, et al. (2013). The population decline and extinction of Darwin's frogs. Plos One 8(6): e66957.

Alberto Veloso, Herman Núñez, Helen Díaz-Paéz, Ramón Formas. (2010). Rhinoderma rufum. In: IUCN 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. ( Downloaded on 11 November 2012.


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