The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Epioblasma turgidula Lea, 1858

Turgid blossom, Turgid blossom pearly mussel, Turgid riffleshell, Turgid-blossom naiad



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Dysnomia turgidula Lea, 1858


Conservation Status

IUCN RedList status: Extinct



Alabama, Arkansas & Tennessee, USA


Biology & Ecology










Bogan, A. E. (Mollusc Specialist Group). (2000). Epioblasma turgidula. In: IUCN 2013. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2013.1. ( Downloaded on 19 July 2013.

Bogan, Arthur E. and Parmalee, Paul W. (1983). Tennessee's Rare Wildlife. Volume II: The Mollusks. Tennessee Wildlife Resources Agency.

Cowie, Robert H., Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît, and Bouchet, Philippe. (2017). Measuring the Sixth Extinction: what do mollusks tell us? The Nautilus 131(1): 3-41.

Graf, Daniel L. and Cummings, Kevin S. (2021). A ‘big data’ approach to global freshwater mussel diversity (Bivalvia: Unionoida), with an updated checklist of genera and species. Journal of Molluscan Studies 87(1): eyaa034.

Harris, J.L. and M.E. Gordon. 1987. Distribution and status of rare and endangered mussels (Mollusca: Margaritiferidae, Unionidae) in Arkansas. Proceedings of the Arkansas Academy of Science, 41: 49-56.

Mirarchi, R.E. 2004. Alabama Wildlife. Volume One: A Checklist of Vertebrates and Selected Invertebrates: Aquatic Mollusks, Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 209 pp.

NatureServe. (2014). NatureServe Explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application]. Version 7.1. NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Available (Accessed: January 29, 2015).

Parmalee, P.W. and A.E. Bogan. 1998. The Freshwater Mussels of Tennessee. University of Tennessee Press: Knoxville, Tennessee. 328 pp.

Pilsbry, H.A. and S.N. Rhoads. 1896. Contributions to the ecology of Tennessee no.4: Mollusks. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philad. 48: 487-506.

Régnier, Claire, Fontaine, Benoît and Bouchet, Philippe. (2009). Not Knowing, Not Recording, Not Listing: Numerous Unnoticed Mollusk Extinctions. Conservation Biology 23(5): 1214-1221.

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS). (1985). Recovery plan for tubercled-blossom pearly mussel Epioblasma (= Dysnomia) torulosa torulosa (Rafinesque, 1820), turgid-blossom pearly mussel Epioblasma (= Dysnomia) turdigula (Lea, 1858), and yellow-blossom pearly mussel Epioblasma (= Dysnomia) florentina florentina (Lea, 1857). U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Atlanta, Georgia. 39 pp.

Williams, James D., Bogan, Arthur E., Butler, Robert S., Cummings, Kevin S., Garner, Jeffrey T., Harris, John L., Johnson, Nathan A. and Watters, G. Thomas. (2017). A revised list of the freshwater mussels (Mollusca: Bivalvia: Unionida) of the United States and Canada. Freshwater Mollusk Biology and Conservation 20: 33-58.

Williams, J.D., A.E. Bogan, and J.T. Garner. 2008. Freshwater Mussels of Alabama & the Mobile Basin in Georgia, Mississippi & Tennessee. University of Alabama Press: Tuscaloosa, Alabama. 908 pp.


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