The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database


Xenothrix mcgregori Williams & Koopman, 1952:12

Jamaican monkey

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

 

 

Conservation Status

Last record: 1,477 ± 34 (cal BP) (Cooke et al. 2017); 1600's? (possible report)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

Distribution

Jamaica

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

Holotype: AMNHM 148198 (manidble)

 

Other specimens:

AMNHM 259900 (femur)

AMNHM 259901 (proximal humerus)

AMNHM 259902 (tibia)

AMNHM 259903 (tibia)

AMNHM 259904 (os coxae)

AMNHM 268001 (mandible)

AMNHM 268003 (femur)

AMNHM 268004 (mandible)

AMNHM 268005 (proximal humerus)

AMNHM 268006 (partial skull with right and left P3-M2)

AMNHM 268007 (partial left maxilla)

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Williams, E. E. and Koopman, Karl F. (1952). West Indian fossil monkeys. American Museum Novitates 1546: 1-16.

 

Other references:

Alcover, Josep Antoni et al. (1998). Mammal Species of the World: Additional Data on Insular Mammals. American Museum Novitates 3248, 29 pp., 1 table.

Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Mancina, Carlos A., Woods, Charles A. and Kilpatrick, C. William. (2012). Checklist: Updated Checklist of Endemic Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies, pp. 389-415. In: Borroto-Páez, Rafael, Woods, Charles A. and Sergile, F. E. (eds.). Terrestrial Mammals of the West Indies: Contributions. Gainesville, Florida: Florida Museum of Natural History and Wacahoota Press. 482 pp.

Cooke, Siobhán B. (2011). Paleodiet of Extinct Platyrrhines With Emphasis on the Caribbean Forms: Three-Dimensional Geometric Morphometrics of Mandibular Second Molars. Anatomical Redord -New Series- 294(12): 2073-2091. [Abstract]

Cooke, Siobhán B., Mychajliw, Alexis M., Southon, John and MacPhee, Ross D. E. (2017). The extinction of Xenothrix mcgregori, Jamaica’s last monkey. Journal of Mammalogy 98(4): 937-949. [Abstract]

Ford, Susan M. (1986). Subfossil platyrrhine tibia (Primates: Callitrichidae) from Hispaniola: A possible further example of Island gigantism. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 70(1): 47-62. [Abstract]

Ford, Susan M. (1990). Platyrrhine evolution in the West Indies. J. Human Evol. 19:237-254.

Ford, Susan M. and G. S. Morgan. (1986). A new ceboid femur from the late Pleistocene of Jamaica. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 6(3): 281–289.

Horovitz, I., R. D. E. MacPhee, C. Flemming, and D. A. McFarlane. (1997). Cranial remains of Xenothrix and their bearing on the question of Antillean monkey origins. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 17:suppl.54A.

Horovitz, I. and R. D. E. MacPhee. In press a. The primate fossil record of the Greater Antilles. In Woods, C. A., Ottenwalder, J. A., and Borroto, R. (eds.) The Mammals of the West Indies, vol. 1, Land Mammals. University of Florida Press.

Horovitz, I. and R. D. E. MacPhee. In press b. A skull and other newly discovered remains of the extinct Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori (Primates, Platyrrhini), with notes on its phylogenetic position. Amer. Mus. Novitates.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and J. G. Fleagle. (1991). Postcranial remains of Xenothrix mcgregori (Primates, Xenotrichidae) and other Late Quaternary mammals from Long Mile Cave, Jamaica. In T.A. Griffiths and D. Klingener (editors), Contributions to mammalogy in honor of Karl F. Koopman, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 206: 287–321.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Horovitz, Ines. (2004). New craniodental remains of the Quaternary Jamaican monkey Xenothrix mcgregori (Xenotrichini, Callicebinae, Pitheciidae), with a reconsideration of the Aotus hypothesis. American Museum Novitates 3434.

MacPhee, R. D. E. and Meldrum, Jeff. (2006). Postcranial Remains of the Extinct Monkeys of the Greater Antilles, with Evidence for Semiterrestriality in Paralouatta. American Museum Novitates, No. 3516: 1-65.

MacPhee, R. & Hoffmann, M. (2008a). Xenothrix mcgregori. In: IUCN 2011. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2011.2. (https://www.iucnredlist.org). Downloaded on 29 January 2012.

MacPhee, R. & Hoffmann, M. (2008b). Xenothrix mcgregori. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2008: e.T136515A4303233. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2008.RLTS.T136515A4303233.en. Downloaded on 26 June 2021.

D.A. McFarlane, J. Lundberg, and A. G. Fincham. (2002). A late Quaternary paleoecological record from caves of southern Jamaica, West Indies. Journal of Cave and Karst Studies 64(2): 117-125.

McFarlane, D. A. and R. D. E. MacPhee. (1995). A Late Quaternary paleoecological record from caves in southern Jamaica. Geol. Soc. Amer. Abstracts with program, p. A-386.

Rosenberger, A. L. (1977). Xenothrix and ceboid phylogeny. Journall of Human Evolution 6(5): 461-472. [Abstract]

Shuker, Karl P. (2013, 8 June). Xenothrix – a mystery monkey from Jamaica. Blog post, available at: https://www.karlshuker.blogspot.co.uk/2013/06/xenothrix-mystery-monkey-from-jamaica.html

Weintraub, B. (1997). Long lost jaw of an extinct monkey. National Geographic (April).

Woods, R., Turvey, S.T., Brace, S., MacPhee, Ross. D.E., Barnes, I. (2018) Ancient DNA of the extinct Jamaican monkey Xenothrix reveals extreme insular change within a morphologically conservative primate radiation. PNAS. doi: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1808603115 [Abstract]

https://creo.amnh.org/example1.html

https://phys.org/news/2017-08-fossil-evidence-humans-role-monkey.html

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/6543/xenothrix-mcgregori-jamaican-monkey

 

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