The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database


Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799)

Woolly mammoth

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym: Elephas primigenius Blumenbach, 1799 (original combination)

 

Conservation Status

Last record: c. 1730 BC (Vartanyan et al. 1995)

 

Although one of the best candidates for de-extinction through cloning, some would say that this is in fact unnecessary. There have been numerous reports of woolly mammoths, or creatures fitting their description, from the former USSR throughout the 20th century (Heuvelmans, 1965:221-238; Anonymous, 1978). And several mythological beasts are said to derive from the Woolly mammoth (Jandáček, 2018).

 

Distribution

Eurasia and North America

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

Probably the most famous of all recently extinct species, the woolly mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i]) became extinct c. 1730 BC when the Wrangel Island population became extinct (Vartanyan et al. 1995). DNA analysis of frozen specimens uncovered during palaeontological expeditions etc. have uncovered specimens so well preserved that DNA sequencing has been permitted. Apart from letting us study the amount of genetic diversity within the various mammoth populations just before they went extinct, another startling discovery has been made. Mammoths actually consist of two very distinct species who diverged from each other around the same time as the ancestor of both the African and Asian elephant lineages speciated.

 

Media

 

References

Original scientific description:

Blumenbach, J. (1799). Handbuch der naturgeschichte 16, pp. 1-697.

 

Other references:

Abel, O. (1925). Geschichte und Methode der Rekonstruktion vorzeitlicher Wirbeltiere. – Ed. Gustav Fischer, Jena, 327 pp.

Adam, K. D. (1994). Anomalien des Zahnwechsels bei Elephas primigenius aus dem Quartär des Oberrheins. Stuttgarter Beiträge zur Naturkunde Serie B 211: 1-36.

Agenbroad, L. D. (1985). The distribution and chronology of mammoth in the New World. Acta Zoologica Fennica 170: 221-224.

Agenbroad, Larry D. and Mead, J. I. (1984). The Hot Springs Mammoth Site. A decade of field and laboratory research in paleontology, geology and paleoecology. Hot Springs, South Dakota: The Mammoth Site.

Alroy, J. (2001). A multispecies overkill simulation of the end-Pleistocene megafaunal mass extinction, 15 Science 292: 1893-1896.

Álvarez-Lao, Diego J. (In Press, 2013). The Jou Puerta cave (Asturias, NW Spain): a MIS 3 large mammal assemblage with mixture of cold and temperate elements. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology. [Abstract]

Álvarez-Lao D.J., García N. 2011 Geographical distribution of Pleistocene cold-adapted large mammal faunas in the Iberian Peninsula. Quaternary International 233(2), 159-170.

Álvarez-Lao, D. J. and García, N. (2012). Comparative revision of the Iberian woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) record into a European context. Quaternary Science Reviews 32: 64-74. [Abstract]

Álvarez-Lao, D. J., Kahlke, R.-D., García, N. and Mol, D. (2009). The Padul mammoth finds. On the southernmost record of Mammuthus primigenius in Europe and its southern spread during the Late Pleistocene. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 278(1–4): 57-70.

Anders, Ulrike and Koenigswald, Wighart von. (2013). Increasing and decreasing functional area of the dentition (FAD) of Mammuthus primigenius. Paläontologische Zeitschrift (online) DOI: 10.1007/s12542-013-0168-2.

Anonymous. (1903). Mammoth bones found in Klondike gravels. Dawson Daily News, September 11.

Anonymous. (1978). Is the mammoth extinct? Soviet Life 1978: 66. [December issue]

Antić, Aleksandar et al. (2021). Promoting Palaeontological Heritage of Mammoths in Serbia Through a Cross-Country Thematic Route. Geoheritage 13: 7. [Abstract]

Aptroot, A. and van Geel, B., (2006). Fungi of the colon of the Yukagir Mammoth and from stratigraphically related permafrost samples. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 141: 225-230.

Arppe, L., J. A. Karhu, and S. L. Vartanyan. 2009. Bioapatite Sr-87/Sr-86 of the last woolly mammoths—implications for the isolation of Wrangel Island. Geology 37:347–350.

Arppe, L., Karhu, J. A., Vartanyan, S. L. et al. (2019). Thriving or surviving? The isotopic record of the Wrangel Island woolly mammoth population. Quaternary Science Reviews 222: 105884. [Abstract]

Arzyutov, Dmitry V. (2019). Environmental encounters: Woolly mammoth, indigenous communities and metropolitan scientists in the Soviet Arctic. Polar Record. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0032247419000299 [Abstract]

Ashlock, Daniel and Ashlock, Wendy. (2017). A note on population size inspired by the extinction of mammoths. 2017 IEEE Conference on Computational Intelligence in Bioinformatics and Computational Biology (CIBCB). DOI: 10.1109/CIBCB.2017.8058523 [Abstract]

Author? (2000). Scientists on the Trail of ‘Thai Mammoths’. Agence France Press release, December 7, 2000.

Author? (2001). News Notes: Thailand Mammoths? Crypto 4(1): 19.

Averianov АО (1994) Kutomanov Mammoth. In: Kuzmina IE, Baryshnikov GF (eds) Quaternary fauna of Northern Eurasia. Proc Zool Inst Russ Acad Sci St Petersburg 256: 111-135.

Averiyanov, A. O., Vartanyan, S. L. and Garutt, V. E. (1995). Small mammoth Mammuthus primigenius vrangelensis Garutt, Averianov et Vartanyan, 1993, from Wrangel Island (North-eastern Siberia), Tr. Zool. Inst. Ross. Akad. Nauk., 263: 184-199.

Aznar-Cormano, Laetitia et al. (2021). Molecular sexing of degraded DNA from elephants and mammoths: a genotyping assay relevant both to conservation biology and to paleogenetics. Scientific Reports 11: 7227.

Baca, M., Nadachowski, A., Lipecki, G., Mackiewicz, P., Marciszak, A., Popoviæ, D., Socha, P., Stefaniak, K., Wojtal, P. (2017). Impact of climatic changes in the Late Pleistocene on migrations and extinction of mammals in Europe: four case studies. Geological Quarterly 61(2): [pagination?]. doi: 10.7306/gq.1319

Banks, Peter B. and Hochuli, Dieter F. (2017). Extinction, de-extinction and conservation: a dangerous mix of ideas. Australian Zoologist 38(3): 390-394. [Abstract[]

Barnes, I., Shapiro, B., Lister, A., Kuznetsova, T., Sher, A., Guthrie, D. and Thomas, M. G. (2007). Genetic structure and extinction of the woolly mammoth, [i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i]. Current Biology 17: 1072-1075.

Basilyan AE, Anisimov MA, Nikolskiy PA, Pitulko VV (2011) Wooly mammoth mass accumulation next to the Paleolithic Yana RHS site, Arctic Siberia: its geology, age, and relation to past human activity. J Archaeol Sci 38:2461–2474

Belfield, Dominic. (1988). Latest Odds on the Modern Mammoth. BBC Wildlife 1988: 148. [March issue]

Ben-Aaron, Diana. (1984). Retrobreeding the woolly mammoth. Technology Review 87: 85.

Bertling, Markus et al. (2017). Everything is a question of time – age of important quaternary palaeontological finds from Westphala. Fossil Imprint 73(3-4): 454-459.

Bocherens, H., Fizet, M., Mariotti, A., Gangloff, R. A. and Burns, J. A. (1994). Contribution of isotopic biogeochemistry (13C, 15N, 18O) to the paleoecology of mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Historical Biology 7: 187-202.

Boeskorov G.G. 2006 Arctic Siberia: refuge of the Mammoth fauna in the Holocene. Quaternary International 142–143(0), 119-123.

Boeskorov, Gennady G. et al. (2014). Preliminary analyses of the frozen mummies of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), bison (Bison priscus) and horse (Equus sp.) from the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Yakutia, Russia. Integrative Zoology 9: 471-480.

Boeskorov, Gennady G; Belolyubsky, Innocenty; Shchelchkova, Marina V. (2018). Monument of nature the Berelekh mammoths "cemetery" (Yakutia, Eastern Siberia, Russia). International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference : SGEM : Surveying Geology & Mining Ecology Management 18: 299-306. [Abstract]

Boeskorov GG, Tikhonov AN, Suzuki N (eds) (2007) The Yukagir mammoth. Saint-Petersburg University Publishing House, Saint-Petersburg

Boeskorov, Gennady G. and Shchelchkova, Marina V. (2017). Transformation of Representations about Woolly Mammoth - from Superstitions to Science. Transylvanian Review 25(23): [pagination?]. [Abstract]

Boeskerov, G. G. et al. (In Press, 2013). Preliminary analyses of the frozen mummies of mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius), bison (Bison priscus) and horse (Equus sp.) from the Yana-Indigirka Lowland, Yakutia, Russia. Integrative Zoology. [Abstract]

Boeskerov, G. G. et al. (2016). Adaptation of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) to habitat conditions in the glacial period. Contemporary Problems of Ecology 9(5): 544-553. [Abstract]

Boev, Zlatozar N. (2018). Fossil and subfossil record of vertebrate animals (Vertebrata J.-B. Lamarck, 1801) along the Western Black Sea Coast (Bulgaria). Acta Zoologica Bulgarica, Suppl. 11: 105-110.

Boger, Ulf et al. (2014). New Insights Gained from the Faunal Material Recovered During the Latest Excavations at Vogelherd Cave. Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Urgeschichte 23: 57-81.

Boiko PV, Maschenko EN, Sylerzhitskii LD (2005) A new large Late Pleistocene mammoth’s locality in Western Siberia. In: Agenbroad LD, Symington BL (eds) The world of elephants. Abstr 2 Int Congr. The Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, Hot Springs 4: 22-26.

Borodin, A. V., Strukova, T. V., Trofimova, S. S. and Zinoviev, E. V. (2001). Reconstruction of mammoth environments at different stages of the Pleistocene in the West-Siberian Plain, pp. 267-271. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Bourgeon, Lauriane. (2021). Revisiting the mammoth bone modifications from Bluefish Caves (YT, Canada). Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 37: 102969. [Abstract]

Brahic, Catherine. (2014). Woolly mammoths wiped out by a superfood shortage. New Scientist 221(2955): 12. [Abstract]

Braun, Ingmar M. and Palombo, Maria Rita. (2012). Mammuthus primigenius in the cave and portable art: An overview with a short account on the elephant fossil record in Southern Europe during the last glacial. Quaternary International 276-277: 61-76. [Abstract]

Brugère, Alexis. (2014). Not one but two mammoth hunting strategies in the Gravettian of the Pavlov Hills area (southern Moravia). Quaternary International 337: 80-89. [Abstract]

Buck, Caitlin E. and Bard, Edouard. (2007). A calendar chronology for Pleistocene mammoth and horse extinction in North America based on Bayesian radiocarbon calibration. Quaternary Science Reviews 26(17-18): 2031-2035. [Abstract]

Campbell, Douglas Ian and Whittle, Patrick Michael. (2017). Three Case Studies: Aurochs, Mammoths and Passenger Pigeons, pp. 29-48. In: Resurrecting Extinct Species: Ethics and Authenticity. Palgrave Macmillan. [Abstract]

Campbell, K. L., Roberts, J. E., Watson, L. N. et al. (2010). Substitutions in woolly mammoth hemoglobin confer biochemical properties adaptive for cold tolerance. Nature Genetics 42: 536-540.

Chang, Dan et al. (2017). The evolutionary and phylogeographic history of woolly mammoths: a comprehensive mitogenomic analysis. Scientific Reports 7: 44585.

Cherney, Michael Dennis. (2016). Records of Growth and Weaning in Fossil Proboscidean Tusks as Tests of Pleistocene Extinction Mechanisms. PhD thesis. [Abstract]

Chmielewski, W., Kubiak, H. 1962. The find of mammoth bones at Skaratki in the Łowicz district.Folia Quaternaria 10: 1-45.

Cinq-Mars, J. (2001). On the significance of modified mammoth bones from eastern Beringia, pp. 424-428. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Cohen, Claudine. (1994). Le destin du mammouth. Editions Du Seuil coll. Science Ouverte, Paris.

Combier, J. and Onoratini, G. (2001). The hunting of mammoth and the utilisation of mammoth bones and ivory in the Rhône basin, pp. 465. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Conard, N. J. and Niven, L. (2001). The Paleolithic finds from Bollschweil and the question of Neanderthal mammoth hunting in the Black Forest, pp. 194-200. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Carobene, Daria et al. (In Press, 2020). An interdisciplinary study of a mammoth-bearing Late Pleistocene sediment succession in Lower Austria. Quaternary International. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2020.02.022 [Abstract]

Cotrell, Sariah, Jensen, Jamie L. and Peck, Steven L. (2014). Resuscitation and resurrection: The ethics of cloning cheetahs, mammoths, and Neanderthals. Life Sciences, Society and Policy 10:3.

Dal Piaz, G. (1922). "Sull'esistenza dell'uomo paleolitico nel Veneto", Utensili di selce e resti di Elephas primigenius scoperti nelle alluvioni del Musone (Asolo) 6: 3-12.

Danukalova, G. A. and Yakovlev, A. G. (2001). Finds of Proboscidean remains in the territory of the Southern Urals region, pp. 201-204. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Daschek, Éva J. and Mester, Zsolt. (2020). A site with mixed occupation: Neanderthals and carnivores at Érd (Hungary). Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports 29: 102116.

Dawkins, William Boyd. (1868). On the Pleistocene Mammals of Yorkshire. Proceedings of the Geological and Polytechnic Society of the West Riding of Yorkshire 4: 502-510.

Debruyne, R. (2001). New mitochondrial data demonstrating a close relationship between Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) and Loxodonta africana (Blumenbach, 1797), pp. 630-632. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Debruyne R, Chu G, King CE, Bos K, Kuch M, Schwarz C, Szpak P, Grocke DR, Matheus P, Zazula G, Guthrie D, Froese D, Buigues B, de Marliave C, Flemming C, Poinar D, Fisher D, Southon J, Tikhonov AN, MacPhee RD, Poinar HN. (2008). Out of America: ancient DNA evidence for a new world origin of late quaternary woolly mammoths. Current Biology 18(17): 1320-1326.

Dehasque, Marianne et al. (2021). Combining Bayesian age models and genetics to investigate population dynamics and extinction of the last mammoths in northern Siberia. Quaternary Science Reviews 259: 106913.

Demay, L., Péan, S., Germonpré, Mietje et al. (2020). Upper Pleistocene hominins and wooly (sic) mammoths in the East European Plain. Preprint ⟨hal-03026620⟩. [Abstract]

Demay, L., Péan, S., Patou-Mathis, M. 2012. Mammoths used as food and building resources byNeanderthals: Zooarchaeological study applied to layer 4, Molodova I (Ukraine).Quaternary International 276-277: 212-226.

Derenko, M., Malyarchuk, B. & Shields, G. F. 1997. Mitochondrial cytochrome b sequence from a 33,000 year-old Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Ancient Biomolecules 1: 149-153.

Derevianko AP, Zenin VN, Leshchinskiy SV, Mashchenko EN (2000) Peculiarities of mammoth accumulation at Shestakovo site in West Siberia. Archaeol Ethnol Anthropol Eurasia 3(3):42–55

Diedrich, C. (2005). Von eiszeitlichen Fleckenhyänen benagte Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799)-Knochen und -Knabbersticks aus dem oberpleistozänen Perick-Höhlenhorst (Sauerland) und Beitrag zur Taphonomie von Mammutkadavern. Philippia 12(1): 63-84.

Dietrich, W. O. (1912). Elephas primigenius Fraasi, eine schwäbische Mammutrasse. Jh. Ver. vaterländ. Naturk. Württ., 1912: 42–106, 26 figs., 2 pls.; Stuttgart.

Doughty, C. E., Wolf, A., and Field, C. B. (2010). Biophysical feedbacks between the Pleistocene megafauna extinction and climate: The first human-induced global warming?, Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L15703.

Douw, D. S., van Rijssen, B. E. I., Fraaije, R. H. B. and Wallaard, J. J. W. (2021). Analysis of Late Pleistocene megafauna and puparia from the Lent dredging site, province of Gelderland (the Netherlands). Netherlands Journal of Geosciences 100: e10. https://doi.org/10.1017/njg.2021.7

Drucker, Dorothée G. et al. (In Press, 2014). Tracking possible decline of woolly mammoth during the Gravettian in Dordogne (France) and the Ach Valley (Germany) using multi-isotope tracking (13C, 14C, 15N, 34S, 18O). Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Dorothée G. Drucker et al. Collagen stable isotopes provide insights into the end of the mammoth steppe in the central East European plains during the Epigravettian, Quaternary Research (2018). DOI: 10.1017/qua.2018.40

Dubrovo, I. (1990). The Pleistocene elephants of Siberia. In: Agenbroad, L. G. et al. (eds.). Megafauna and Man. Discovery of American Heartland, Northern Arizona University, Hot Springs: 1-8.

El Adli, Joseph J., Fisher, Daniel C., Vartanyan, Sergey L. and Tikhonov, Alexei N. (In Press, 2016). Final years of life and seasons of death of woolly mammoths from Wrangel Island and mainland Chukotka, Russian Federation. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2016.07.017 [Abstract]

Enk, Jacob, Devault, A., Debruyne, R., King, C.E., Treangen, T., O’Rourke, D., Salzberg, S.L., Fisher, D., MacPhee, R., and Poinar, H. (2011). Complete Columbian mammoth mitogenome suggests interbreeding with woolly mammoths. Genome Biology 12(5): R51.

Esin, Yury N. et al. (2020). Images of camels on a mammoth tusk from West Siberia. Archaeological Research in Asia 22: 100180. [Abstract]

Estraviz López, Darío. (2019). Quaternary fossil vertebrates from continental Portugal: Paleobiodiversity, revision of specimens and new localities. Dissertation. xxv + 170 pp.

Farah, Naima and Boyce, John R. (2019). Elephants and mammoths: the effect of an imperfect legal substitute on illegal activity. Environment and Development Economics. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1355770X18000554 [Abstract]

Farina, Simone. (2016). Catalogue of the late Pleistocene-Holocene fossil mammalian collection from “Canale delle Acque Alte (Canale Mussolini)” (Natural History Museum, University of Pisa). Atti Soc. Tosc. Sci. Nat., Mem., Serie A, 123: 47-53, 3 figs.

Faunmap working group. (1994). FAUNMAP: a database documenting late Quaternary distributions of mammal species in the United States. Illinois State Museum Scientific Papers 25(1-2): 1-690.

Felix, J. (1912). Das Mammuth von Borna. Veröffentlichungen des Städtischen Museums für Völkerkunde 4: 1-52.

Feranec, Robert S. and Kozlowski, Andrew L. (2012). New AMS radiocarbon dates from late Pleistocene mastodons and mammoths in New York state, USA. Radiocarbon 54(2): 275-279.

Ferrari, Giada et al. (2018). Assessing Metagenomic Signals Recovered from Lyuba, a 42,000-Year-Old Permafrost-Preserved Woolly Mammoth Calf. Genes 9: 436. [automatic download]

Fisher, Daniel C. et al. (2012). Anatomy, death, and preservation of a woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) calf, Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 94–105. [Abstract]

Daniel C. Fisher, Ethan A. Shirley, Christopher D. Whalen, Zachary T. Calamari, Adam N. Rountrey, Alexei N. Tikhonov, Bernard Buigues, Frédéric Lacombat, Semyon Grigoriev, and Piotr A. Lazarev. (2014). X-ray computed tomography of two mammoth calf mummies. Journal of Paleontology 88(4): 664-675. [Abstract]

Fladerer, F. A. (2001). The Krems-Wachtberg camp-site: mammoth carcass utilization along the Danube 27,000 years ago, pp. 432-438. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Flerov, K. K. (1931). A trunk of the mammoth (Elephas primigenius Blum.) found in the Kolyma District (Siberia). Izvestiya Akademii Nauk SSSR 7, 863–70. (In Russian.)

Fletcher, Amy Lynn. (2019). Mammoths, Museums, and Molecules: A De-Extinction Icon Emerges, pp. 45-61. In: De-Extinction and the Genomics Revolution. Cham: Palgrave Pivot. [Abstract]

Fordham, Damien A. et al. (2021). Humans hastened the range collapse and extinction of woolly mammoth. bioRxiv preprint. doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.02.17.431706

Foronova, I. V. (2001). History of Quaternary Proboscideans of the South of Western Siberia inferred from dental system analysis, pp. 109-114. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Fourvel, Jean-Baptiste, Fosse, Philippe, Fernandez, Philippe and Antoine, Pierre-Olivier. (2014). La grotte de Fouvent, dit l’Abri Cuvier (Fouvent-le-Bas, Haute-Saône, France): analyse taphonomique d’un repaire d’hyènes du Pléistocène supérieur (OIS 3). PALEO 25: 79-99.

Fox, D. L. et al. (2007). Paleoclimatic implications of oxygen isotopic variation in late Pleistocene and Holocene tusks of Mammuthus primigenius from northern Eurasia. Quaternary Int. 2007: 154-165, 169-170.

Fry, Erin et al. (2020). Functional architecture of deleterious genetic variants in the genome of a Wrangel Island mammoth. Genome Biology and Evolution. doi: https://doi.org/10.1093/gbe/evz279

Fulka, Josef Jr. et al. (2009). Hope for the mammoth? Cloning and Stem Cells 11(1): p.1(3).

Fuller, Errol. (2004). Mammoths: Giants of the Ice Age (Lost Worlds). Bunker Hill Publishing Inc. 48 pp.

Gallini, V. and Sala, B. (2001). Settepolesini di Bondeno (Ferrara - Eastern Po Valley): the first example of mammoth steppe in Italy, pp. 272-275. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

García-Alix, A., Huertas, A. Delgado and Suárez, E. Martín. (2012). Unravelling the Late Pleistocene habitat of the southernmost woolly mammoths in Europe. Quaternary Science Reviews 32: 75-85. [Abstract]

Garg, Abhishek D. and Hippargi, R. V. (2008). In silico Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationship Between Woolly Mammoths and Modern Elephants. Journal of Young Investigators 2008, retrieved 6 April 2013 from https://www.jyi.org/issue/in-silico-analysis-of-the-phylogenetic-relationship-between-woolly-mammoths-and-modern-elephants/

Germonpré, M., Sablin, M., Khlopachev, G. A., Grigorieva, G. V. (2008). Possible evidence of mammoth hunting during the Epigravettian at Yudinovo, Russian Plain. J Anthropol Archaeol 27: 475-492.

Germonpré, M., Udrescu, M., Fiers, E. 2014. Possible evidence of mammoth hunting at theNeanderthal site of Spy (Belgium). Quaternary International 337: 28-42.

Gibbons, A. (2005). New Methods yield mammoth samples. Science 310: 1889.

Gilbert, M. T. P. et al. (2008). Intraspecific phylogenetic analysis of Siberian woolly mammoths using complete mitochondrial genomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 105: 8327-8332.

Glass, Jessica R., Davis, Matt, Walsh, Timothy J., Sargis Eric J. and Caccone, Adalgisa. (2016). Was Frozen Mammoth or Giant Ground Sloth Served for Dinner at The Explorers Club? PLoS ONE 11(2): e0146825.

Graham, Russell W. et al. (2016). Timing and causes of mid-Holocene mammoth extinction on St. Paul Island, Alaska. PNAS.

Greenwood, A. D., F. Lee,C. Capelli, R. De Salle, A. Tikhonov, P. A. Marx, and R. D. E. MacPhee. (2001). Evolution of endogenous retrovirus-like elements of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and its relatives. Mol. Biol. Evol. 18: 840-847. [Abstract]

Grigoriev, Semyon E. (2017). A woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) carcass from Maly Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Islands, Russian Federation). Quaternary International 445: 89-103. [Abstract]

Grøn, O. (2019). Mammoth-hunter Camps in the Scandinavian North Sea Sector during the Late Weichselian? Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. History 64(2): 555-583.

Guil‐Guerrero, José L. et al. (2018). Mammoth resources for hominins: from omega‐3 fatty acids to cultural objects. Journal of Quaternary Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/jqs.3026 [Abstract]

Guthrie, R. D. (1982). Mammoths of the Mammoth Steppe as Paleoenvironmental Indicators, pp. 307-326. In: Hopkins, D.M., Mathews, J.V., Schweger, C.E., Young, S.B. (eds.). Paleoecology of Beringia. Academic Press: New York city, USA and London, UK.

Guthrie, R. D. (1990). Frozen Fauna of the Woolly Mammoth Steppe: The Story of Blue Babe. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. 323 pp.

Guthrie, R.D. (2001a) Origin and causes of the mammoth steppe: A story of cloud cover, woolly mammal tooth pits, buckles, and inside-out Beringia. Quat. Sci. Rev. 20: 549-574.

Guthrie, R. D. (2001b). Reconstructions of Woolly Mammoth life history, pp. 276-279. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Guthrie, R. D. (2004). Radiocarbon evidence of mid-Holocene woolly mammoths stranded on an Alaskan Bering Sea island. Nature 429: 746-749.

Guthrie, R. D. (2006). New carbon dates like climatic change with human colonization and Pleistocene extinctions, Nature 441: 207-209.

Hagelberg, E., Thomas, M. G., Cook, C. E. Jnr., Sher, A. V., Baryshnikov, G. F. and Lister, A. M. (1994). DNA from ancient mammoth bones. Nature 370: 333–334.

Haile, J. et al. (2009). Ancient DNA reveals late survival of woolly mammoth and horse in interior Alaska. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 106: 22352-22357.

Hall, S. J. G. (2008). A comparative analysis of the habitat of the extinct aurochs and other prehistoric mammals in Britain. Ecography 31: 187-190.

Harrington, C. R. (2011). Pleistocene vertebrates of the Yukon Territory. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(17-18): 2341-2354. [Abstract]

Harington, C. R., Mol, Dick and Plicht, Johannes van der. (2012). The Muirkirk Mammoth: A Late Pleistocene woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) skeleton from southern Ontario, Canada. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 106-113. [Abstract]

Harrington, Matthew; Widga, Chris; Wanamaker, Al; and Walker, Doug. (2019). Identifying Dietary and Migratory Patterns of Illinois
Woolly Mammoth Populations Using Isotope Analysis of Carbon, Oxygen, and Strontium
. Celebration of Learning.
https://digitalcommons.augustana.edu/celebrationoflearning/2019/posters/17

Haynes, V. (1986). Mammoth hunters of the USA and USSR, pp. 557-570. In: Kontrimavichus, V. I. (ed.). Beringia in Cenozoic Era. Rotterdam: A. A. Balkema.

Haynes, Gary and Klimowicz, Janis. (In Press, 2015). A preliminary review of bone and teeth abnormalities seen in recent Loxodonta and extinct Mammuthus and Mammut, and suggested implications. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.04.001 [Abstract]

Haynes, Gary, Klimowicz, Janis and Wojtal, Piotr. (2018). A comparative study of woolly mammoths from the Gravettian site Kraków Spadzista (Poland), based on estimated shoulder heights, demography, and life conditions. Quatenary Research. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2018.60 [Abstract]

Heuvelmans, Bernard. (1965). On the Track of Unknown Animals. New York: Hill & Wang, Inc. [p. 221-238]

Hoffecker, J. F., Holliday, V. T., Stepanchuk, V. N., Brugère, A., Forman, S. L., Goldberg, P., Tubolzev, O. and Pisarev, I. (2014). Geoarchaeological and Bioarchaeological Studies at Mira, an Early Upper Paleolithic Site in the Lower Dnepr Valley, Ukraine. Geoarchaeology 29: 61-77.

Hoss M, Paabo S, Vereshchagin NK. (1994). Mammoth DNA sequences. Nature 370: 333.

van den Hurk, Youri et al. (2020). The medieval mammoth: Biomolecular identification of mammoth remains from a Dutch medieval context. Lutra 63(1-2): 75-79.

Ishida, Yasuko et al. (2012). Successful Genotyping of Microsatellites in the Woolly Mammoth. J. Hered. [2012]: [pagination?]. [Abstract]

Iwase, Akira et al. (2012). Timing of megafaunal extinction in the late Late Pleistocene on the Japanese Archipelago. Quaternary International 255: 114-124.

Jackson, Alexander. (2014). Using mammalian assemblages to reconstruct past climate: a study of four Late Pleistocene sites in Suffolk. Suffolk Natural History 50: 76-80.

Jacobson-Tepfer, Esther. (2013). Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene Rock Art from the Mongolian Altai: The Material and its Cultural Implications. Arts 2: 151-181. [automatic download]

Jandáček, Petr. (2018). Mythological Beings Based on Mammoths. International Journal of Social Science Studies 6(2): 1-9.

Joger, U. and Garrido, G. (2001). Phylogenetic position of Elephas, Loxodonta and Mammuthus, based on molecular evidence, pp. 544-547. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Johnson, Martin. (2019). Mammoth Trapping in the Yukon: A review of Northern Tutchone oral history evidence supporting the survival of Woolly Mammoths in the Yukon Territory within the past 1,000 years. Creation Research Society Quarterly 55: 235-245.

Kalke H.D. 1986 Southern limits of the Late Pleistocene Euro-Siberian faunal complex in East Asia. In Beringia in the cenozoic era (eds. Kontrimavicius V.L., Balkema A.A.), pp. 346-358. Rotterdam: Balkema, Amerind Publishing Company.

Lajos Katona, János Kovács , László Kordos, Bálint Szappanos and Isván Linkai. (2012). The Csajág mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius): Late Pleniglacial finds from Hungary and their chronological significance. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 130-138. [Abstract]

Kahlke, Ralf-Dietrich. (2013, In press). The origin of Eurasian Mammoth Faunas (Mammuthus–Coelodonta Faunal Complex). Quaternary Science Reviews. [Abstract]

Katona L., Kovács J., Kordos L., Szappanos B. and Linkai I. 2012. The Csajág mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius): Late Pleniglacial finds from Hungary and their chronological significance. Quaternary International, 255: 86-93.

Khlopatchev, G. A. (2001). Mammoth tusk processing using the knapping technique in the Upper Paleolithic of the Central Russian Plain, pp. 444-447. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Kirillova, Irina V., Borisova, Olga K. et al. (2020). ‘Semi‐dwarf’ woolly mammoths from the East Siberian Sea coast, continental Russia. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/bor.12431 [Abstract]

Kirillova, Irina V. and Shidlovskiy, Fedor K. (2018). Aberrant woolly mammoth remains in the collection of the Ice Age Museum. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS, 2018, 322(3): 285-305.

Irina V. Kirillova, Fedor K. Shidlovskiy and Vadim V. Titov. (2012). Kastykhtakh mammoth from Taimyr (Russia). Quaternary International 276-277: 269–277. [Abstract]

Kislev, Meidad and Barkai, Ran. (2019). Neanderthal and Woolly Mammoth molecular resemblance: Genetic similarities might underlie cold adaptation suite. Human Biology Open Access Pre-Prints. 140.

Klein, Janet R. and Reger, Richard D. (2015). A late Pleistocene megafauna, Kenai Peninsula, southcentral Alaska. Alaska Journal of Anthropology 13(1): 57-68.

Koenigswald, W. von (2002): Lebendige Eiszeit. Klima und Tierwelt im Wandel. – Theiss, Stuttgart, 208 pp.

Kornienko, Igor V. et al. (2018). Complete mitochondrial genome of a woolly mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i]) from Maly Lyakhovsky Island (New Siberian Islands, Russia) and its phylogenetic assessment. Mitochondrial DNA Part B Resources 3(2): 596-598. [Abstract]

Kornienko, Igor V. et al. (2019). [Structural and Functional Organization of the Mitochondrial DNA Control Region in the Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius)]. Mol. Biol. (Mosk) 53(4): 627-637. (in Russian) [Abstract]

Pavel A. Kosintsev, Elena G. Lapteva, Olga M. Korona and Oksana G. Zanina. (2012). Living environments and diet of the Mongochen mammoth, Gydan Peninsula, Russia. Quaternary International 276–277: 253–268. [Abstract]

Kosintsev, P.A., E.G. Lapteva, S.S. Trofimova, O.G. Zanina, A.N. Tikhonov, and J. van der Plicht. (2010). The intestinal contents of a Baby Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799) from the Yuribey River (Yamal Peninsula). Doklady Biological Sciences 432: 209–211.

Kosintsev, P. A. and Vorobiev, A. A. (2001). Ancient elephants of West Siberia, pp. 710-713. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Kosintsev, Pavel A. et al. (2012). Environmental reconstruction inferred from the intestinal contents of the Yamal baby mammoth Lyuba (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799). Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 231–238. [Abstract]

Kostyukevich, Yury et al. (2018). Proteomic and lipidomic analysis of mammoth bone by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry coupled with liquid chromatography. European Journal of Mass Spectrometry. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1469066718813728 [Abstract]

Kotov, A. A. et al. (2019). Crustacea (Branchiopoda) among Organic Remains from Mammoth Hair. Biology Bulletin 46: 850-863. [Abstract]

Oleksandr Kovalchuk, Leonid Rekovets, Aleksander Tsvelykh, Vadym Yanenko, Valery Manko & Svetlana Tajkova (2020). Living in a time of change: Late Pleistocene/Holocene transitional vertebrate fauna of Grot Skeliastyi (Crimea, Ukraine), Historical Biology. https://doi.org/10.1080/08912963.2020.1769094

Kowalczyk, Iwona. (year?). How science supports fiction, or to which extent technologies have advanced the progress towards the vision of de – extinction. Unpublished?

Kozłowski, J.K. Kubiak, H., We lc, A. 1970. A Palaeolithic site with mammoth remains at NowaHuta (Cracow, Poland). Folia Quaternaria 36: 1-20.

Krause, J., Dear, P. H., Pollack, J. L., Slatkin, M., Spriggs, H. et al. (2005). Multiplex amplification of the mammoth mitochondrial genome and the evolution of Elephantidae. Nature 439: 724–727.

Krause, J., P. H. Dear, J. L. Pollack et al. (2006). Multiplex amplification of the mammoth mitochondrial genome and the evolution of Elephantidae. Nature 439: 673-676. [same paper as above citation?]

Kubiak, H. 1980. The Skulls of Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach) from Dębica and Bzianka near Rzeszów, South Poland. Folia Quaternaria 51: 31-45.

Kubiak, H. (2001a). Remains of fossil elephants in Poland, pp. 115-118. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Kubiak, H. (2001b). Unique preservation of a mammoth carcass, pp. 376. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Kuitems, M. et al. (In Press, 2019). Woolly mammoth δ13C and δ15N values remained amazingly stable throughout the last ∼50,000 years in north-eastern Siberia. Quaternary International. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2019.03.001 [Abstract]

Kurtén, B. (1968). Pleistocene Mammals of Europe. London: Aldine Transaction.

Kuzmin, Y. V. (2010). Extinction of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and woolly rhinoceros (Coelodonta antiquitatis) in Eurasia: Review of chronological and environmental issues. Boreas 39: 247–261.

Kuzmin, Y. V. and Orlova, L. A. (2004). Radiocarbon chronology and environment of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) in northern Asia: results and perspectives. Earth-Science Reviews 68(1-2): 133-169.

Kuzmin, Y. V., Orlova, L. A., Stuart, A. J., Zenin, V. N. and Dementiev, N. (2001). Human-mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i] Blumenbach) inter-relationships in the Palaeolithic of Siberia: a review of current knowledge, pp. 714-717. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Kuznetsova, T. V., Sulerzhitsky, L. D. and Siegert, Ch. (2001). New data on the “Mammoth” fauna of the Laptev Shelf Land (East Siberian Arctic), pp. 289-292. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

La Rosa, M., Mazza, P. and Rustioni, M. (2001). The elephant remains from the Agro Pontino, Latina, Central Italy, pp. 205-208. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

L. Lakovleva, F. Djindjian, E. N. Maschenko, S. Konik, and A. M. Moigne. (2012). The late Upper Palaeolithic site of Gontsy (Ukraine): A reference for the reconstruction of the hunter–gatherer system based on a mammoth economy. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 86–93. [Abstract]

Lavers, Chris. (2017). Origin of Myths Related to Curative, Antidotal and Other Medicinal Properties of Animal “Horns” in the Middle Ages. Toxicology in the Middle Ages and Renaissance [2017]: 101-114. [Abstract]

Leshchinskiy, Sergey V. (2001). The Late Pleistocene beast solonetz of Western Siberia: “mineral oases” in mammoth migration paths, foci of the Palaeolithic man’s activity, pp. 293-298. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Leshchinskiy, Sergey V. (2014). Enzootic diseases and extinction of mammoths as a reflection of deep geochemical changes in ecosystems of Northern Eurasia. Archaeological and Anthropological Sciences DOI: 10.1007/s12520-014-0205-4 [Abstract]

Leshchinskiy, Sergey V. (In Press, 2017). Strong evidence for dietary mineral imbalance as the cause of osteodystrophy in Late Glacial woolly mammoths at the Berelyokh site (Northern Yakutia, Russia). Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Leshchinskiy, Sergey V. et al. (2021). The Volchia Griva mammoth site as a key area for geoarchaeological research of human movements in the Late Paleolithic of the West Siberian Plain. Quaternary International 587-588: 368-383. [Abstract]

Lisitsyn, S. N. (2019). The Eastern Frontier of the Gravettian in the Kostenki-Borshchevo Palaeolithic Locality, the Don Basin, Russia. Vestnik of Saint Petersburg University. History 64(2): 525-554.

Lister, A. M. (1999). Epiphyseal fusion and postcranial age determination in the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. In: Haynes, G., Klimowicz, J. and Reumer, J. W. F. (eds.). Mammoths and the mammoth fauna: studies of an extinct ecosystem. Deinsea 6: 79-87.

Lister, A. M. (2001). “Gradual” evolution and molar scaling in the evolution of the mammoth, pp. 648-651. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Lister, Adrian M. (2017). On the type material and evolution of North American mammoths. Quaternary International 443(A): 14-31. [Abstract]

Lister, Adrian M. and Bahn, Paul. (2000). Mammoths: Giants of the ice age. London: Marshall Editions.

Lister, Adrian M. and Bahn, Paul. (2007). Mammoths: giants of the Ice age, revised edition. Berkeley: University of California Press / London: New Burlington Books. 192 pp.

Lister AM, Sher AV (2001) The origin and evolution of the woolly mammoth. Science 294: 1094-1097.

Lõugasa, Lembi, Ukkonen, Pirkko and Jungner, Högne. (2002). Dating the extinction of European mammoths: new evidence from Estonia. Quaternary Science Reviews 21(12-13): 1347-1354. [Abstract]

Louguet, S. (2001). The Middle and Late Pleistocene Mammoth remains from Hanhoffen (Bas-Rhin, France), pp. 209-213. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Lowenstein, J. M., Sarich, V. M. and Richardson, B. J. (1981). Albumin systematics of the extinct mammoth and Tasmanian wolf. Nature 291: 409-411. [Abstract]

Luzan, V.S., Sitnikova, A.A., Kistova, A.V., Fil’ko, A.I., Zamaraeva, J.S., Reznikova, K.V., Kolesnik, M.A., Koptseva, N.P., Pimenova, N.N., Seredkina, N.N. (2020). History of world and Russian mammoth studies. J. Sib. Fed. Univ. Humanit. Soc. Sci. 13(7): 1163-1181. DOI: 10.17516/1997-1370-
0634

Ma, Jiao et al. (2020). The Mammuthus-Coelodonta Faunal Complex at its southeastern limit: A biogeochemical paleoecology investigation in Northeast Asia. Quaternary International. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.quaint.2020.12.024 [Abstract]

MacDonald, G. M., Beilman, D. W., Kuzmin, Y. V., Orlova, L. A., Kremenetski, K. V., Shapiro, B., Wayne, R. K. and Van Valkenburgh, B. (2012). Pattern of extinction of the woolly mammoth in Beringia. Nature Communications 3, 893: 1-8 + supplementary file.

Mardanov, A. V. et al. (2012). Molecular analysis of the intestinal microbiome composition of mammoth and woolly rhinoceros. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics 445(1): 203-206. [Abstract]

Markova, A. K., Puzachenko, A. Yu., van der Plicht, J., van Kolfschoten, T. and Ponomarev, D. V. (2010). New data on the Dynamics of the mammoth Mammuthus primigenius distribution in Europe in the second half of the Late Pleistocene–Holocene. Doklady Akademii Nauk 431(4): 547-550.

Markova, A. K., Simakova, A. N., Puzachenko, A. Yu. and Kitaev, L. M. (2001). Eastern European mammoth distribution and environments during the Middle Valdai Briansk Interstade (33,000-24,000 BP), pp. 299-304. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Markova, A. K. et al. (2012, in press). New data on changes in the European distribution of the mammoth and the woolly rhinoceros during the second half of the Late Pleistocene and the early Holocene. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Markova A.K., Puzachenko A.Y., van Kolfschoten T. 2010 The North Eurasian mammal assemblages during the end of MIS 3 (Brianskian–Late Karginian–Denekamp Interstadial). Quaternary International 212(2), 149-158.

Maschenko, Evgeny N. et al. (2017). The Zhenya Mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i] (Blum.)): Taphonomy, geology, age, morphology and ancient DNA of a 48,000 year old frozen mummy from western Taimyr, Russia. Quaternary International 445: 104-134. [Abstract]

Martin, P. S. (2005). Twilight of the Mammoths: Ice Age Extinctions and the Rewilding of America, Berkely, CA, Univ. of California Press.

Maschenko, E.N., S.S. Gablina, A.S. Tesakov, and A.N. Simakova. (2006). The Sevsk woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) site in Russia: Taphonomic, biological and behavioral interpretations. Quaternary International 142–143: 147–165.

Maschenko, E.N., A.N. Tikhonov, and R.D.E. MacPhee. (2005). Mammoth calf from Bolshoi Lyakhovskii Island (New Siberian Islands, Arctic Siberia). Russian Journal of Theriology 4(1): 79–88.

Mattill, John I. (1984). Our shaggy elephant. Technology Review 87: 4.

Mauch Lenardić, J. (2012). Miocene to Late Pleistocene proboscideans of Croatia. Quat. Int. 276-277: 120-128.

Mauch Lenardić, Jadranka et al. (2018). Mammoths, Deer, and a Dog: Fossil and (Sub) Recent Allochthonous Remains from the Northeastern Croatia (Podravina Region), with the First Radiocarbon Dating of the Croatian Woolly Mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius). Quaternary 1(2): 11 [15].

McNeil, Paul, Hills, L. V., Kooyman, B. and Tolman, Shayne M. (2005). Mammoth tracks indicate a declining Late Pleistocene population in southwestern Alberta, Canada. Quaternary Science Reviews 24(10-11): 1253-1259. [Abstract]

Mead, Jim I. et al. (2020). Proboscideans from US National Park Service Lands. Eastern Paleontologist 6: 1-48.

Metcalfe, J.Z., F.J. Longstaffe, and G.D. Zazula. (2010). Nursing, weaning, and tooth development in woolly mammoths from Old Crow, Yukon, Canada: Implications for Pleistocene extinctions. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 298: 257–270.

Miller W, Drautz DI, Ratan A, Pusey B, Qi J, Lesk AM, Tomsho LP, Packard MD, Zhao F, Sher A, Tikhonov A, Raney B, Patterson N, LindbladToh K, Lander ES, Knight JR, Irzyk GP, Fredrikson KM, Harkins TT, Sheridan S, Pringle T, Schuster SC. (2008). Sequencing the nuclear genome of the extinct woolly mammoth. Nature 456: 387-390.

Mol, Dick, Bijkerk, André and Ballard, Joanne P. (2018). Deciduous Tusks and Small Permanent Tusks of the Woolly Mammoth, [i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i] (Blumenbach, 1799) Found on Beaches in The Netherlands. Quaternary 1(1): 7.

Mol, D., Coppens, Y., Tikhonov, A.N., Agenbroad, L.D., MacPhee, R.D.E., Flemming, C., Greenwood, A., Buigues, B., de Marliave, C., van Geel, B., van Reenen, G.B.A., Pals, J.P., Fisher, D.C. and Fox, D. (2001). The Jarkov Mammoth: 20,000-year-old carcass of a Siberian woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799), pp. 305-309. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Mol, D., J. Shoshani, A.N. Tikhonov, B. van Geel, S. Sano, P. Lazarev, G.G. Boeskorov, and L.D. Agenbroad. (2006). The Yukagir Mammoth: Brief history, 14C dates, individual age, gender, size, physical and environmental conditions and storage. Scientific Annals, School of Geology Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Special Volume 98: 299-314.

Mol, D., Tikhonov, A. N., MacPhee, R. D. E., Flemming, C., Buigues, B., Marliave, C. de, Coppens, Y. and Agenbroad, L. D. (2001). The Fishhook Mammoth: rediscovery of a woolly mammoth carcass by the CERPOLEX/ Mammuthus Team, Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, pp. 310-313. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Moncel, M.-H. (2001). Microlithic Middle Palaeolithic assemblages in Central Europe and elephant remains, pp. 314-317. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Mueller, T. (2009). Ice Baby. National Geographic 215(5): 30-49.

Münzel, S. C. (2001a). Seasonal hunting of mammoth in the Ach-Valley of the Swabian Jura, pp. 318-322. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Münzel, S. C. (2001b). The production of Upper Palaeolithic mammoth bone artifacts from southwestern Germany, pp. 448-454. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Murchie Tyler J. et al. (2020). Optimizing extraction and targeted capture of ancient environmental DNA for reconstructing past environments using the PalaeoChip Arctic-1.0 bait-set. Quaternary Research. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2020.59

Murchie, T. J., Monteath, A. J., Long, G. S., Karpsinski, E., Cocker, S., Zazula, G., MacPhee, R., Froese, D., and Poinar, H.: Ecological turnover and megafaunal ghost ranges during the Pleistocene-Holocene transition in central Yukon, Canada as revealed by palaeoenvironmental DNA, EGU General Assembly 2021, online, 19–30 Apr 2021, EGU21-372, https://doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-egu21-372, 2020. [Abstract]

Mussi, M. and Villa, P. (2009). Single carcass of Mammuthus primigenius with lithic artifacts in the Upper Pleistocene of northern Italy. Journal of Archaeological Science 35: 2606-2613.

Nadachowski, Adam et al. (2018). Impact of climate and humans on the range dynamics of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) in Europe during MIS 2. Quaternary Research. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/qua.2018.54 [Abstract]

Nadachowski, A., Lipecki, G., Wojtal, P. and Miękina, B. (2011). Radiocarbon chronology of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) from Poland. Quaternary International 245: 186-192.

Neretina, A.N., Gololobova, M.A., Neplyukhina, A.A. et al. (2020). Crustacean remains from the Yuka mammoth raise questions about non-analogue freshwater communities in the Beringian region during the Pleistocene. Sci Rep 10: 859.

Neruda, P., Lázničková-Galetová. 2018. Retouchers from mammoth tusks in the Middle Palaeolithic: A case study from Kůlna Cave layer 7a1 (Czech Republic). In Hutson, J. M.,García Moreno, A., Noack, E. S., Turner, E., Villaluenga Martínez, A., Gaudzinski, S. (Eds), The Origins of Bone Tool Technologies (Retouching the Palaeolithic: Becoming Humanand the Origins of Bone Tool Technology Conference at Schloss Herrenhausen, Hannover,Germany, 21 - 23. October 2015), pp. 215 – 233. Mainz, Römisch-Germanisches Zentralmuseum.

Neustroev, M. P. (2012). On the prospects of microbiological research on mammoth fauna in permafrost. Quaternary International special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 139-140. [Abstract]

Ngatia, Jacob Njaramba et al. (2019a). Signals of positive selection in mitochondrial protein‐coding genes of woolly mammoth: Adaptation to extreme environments? Ecology and Evolution 9: 6821-6832.

Ngatia, Jacob Njaramba et al. (2019b). Distinguishing extant elephants ivory from mammoth ivory using a short sequence of cytochrome b gene. Scientific Reports 9: 18863.

Nicholls, H. 2008. Darwin 200: let’s make a mammoth. Nature 456 (7229): 310-314.

Nieman, A.M., van Geel, B., van Kolfschoten, T., Gravendeel, B. (2010). Diet analysis of mammoths ( Mammuthus primigenius) based on ancient DNA. Quaternaire, Hors-série - Numéro 3: 67.

Nikolskiy, P., Pitul’ko, V. 2013. Evidence from the Yana Paleolithic site, Arctic Siberia, yields cluesto the riddle of mammoth hunting. Journal of Archaeological Science 40(12): 4189-4197.

Nikolskiy, P., Sotnikova, M.V., Nikol’skii, A.A., Pitul’ko, V.V. 2018. Predomestication and wolf-human relationships in the Arctic Siberia of 30,000 years ago: Evidence from the YanaPaleolithic site.

Nikolskiy, P. A., Sulerzhitsky, L. D. and Pitulko, V. V. (2011). Last straw versus Blitzkrieg overkill: Climate-driven changes in the Arctic Siberian mammoth population and the Late Pleistocene extinction problem. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(17-18): 2309-2328. [Abstract]

Niven, L. (2001). The role of mammoths in Upper Palaeolithic economies of southern Germany, pp. 323-327. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Noguchi, H., K. L. Campbell, C. Ho., S. Unzai, S.-Y. Park and J.R.H. Tame. (2012). Structures of haemoglobin from woolly mammoth in liganded and unliganded states. Acta Crystallographica Section D: Biological Crystallography 68(11):1441-1449.

Nogués-Bravo, D., Rodríguez, J., Hortal, J., Batra, P. and Araújo, M. B. (2008). Climate change, humans, and the extinction of the woolly mammoth. PLoS Biol. 6: e79.

Noro, M., Masuda, R., Dubrovo, I. A., Yoshida, M. C. and Kato, M. (1998). Molecular phylogenetic inference of the woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius, based on complete sequence of mitochondrial cytochrome b and 12S ribosomal RNA genes. J. Mol. Evol. 46: 314-326.

Nuzhnyi, D. (2001). The variability of the utilisation of mammoth remains from assemblages at three Epigravettian sites in the northern Ukraine, pp. 468. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Nyström, V., Dalen, L., Vartanyan, S., Liden, K., Ryman, N. and Angerbjorn, A. (2010). Temporal genetic change in the last remaining population of woolly mammoth. Proc. Biol. Sci. 277: 2331-2337.

Nyström V, Humphrey J, Skoglund P et al. (2012). Microsatellite genotyping reveals end-Pleistocene decline in mammoth autosomal genetic variation. Molecular Ecology 21: 3391-3402.

Teodor Obadaa, Johannes van der Plichtb, Anastasia Markovac and Afanasie Prepelitsa. (2012). Preliminary results of studies of the Valea Morilor Upper Palaeolithic site (Chişinău, Republic of Moldova): A new camp of mammoth hunters. Quaternary International 276-277: 227-241. [Abstract]

Olivier, R.C.D. (1982). Ecology and Behavior of Living Elephants: Bases for Assumptions Concerning the Extinct Woolly Mammoths, pp. 291–305. In: Paleoecology of Beringia; Hopkins, D.M., Mathews, J.V., Schweger, C.E., Young, S.B., Eds.; Academic Press: New York, NY, USA, London, UK.

Onoratini, G., Combier, J., Baroni, I., Arellano-Moullé, A. and Joris, C. (2001). Mammoths from Upper Palaeolithic sites in the Ardèche (France), pp. 328-330. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Orlova, L. A. et al. (2001). Chronology and environment of woolly mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i] Blumenbach) extinction in northern Asia, pp. 718-721. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Orlova, L. A. et al. (2004). Lugovskoe, West Siberia: a possible extra-Arctic woolly mammoth refugium at the end of the Late Glacial. Radiocarbon 46: 363-368.

Ouden, Natasja den, Reumer, Jelle W. F. and Ostende, Lars W. van den Hoek. (2012). Did mammoth end up a lilliput? Temporal body size trends in Late Pleistocene Mammoths, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach, 1799) inferred from dental data. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 53-58. [Abstract]

Paillet, Patrick. (2011). Le mammouth de la Madeleine (Tursac, Dordogne) Dans son siècle et aujourd’hui. PALEO 22: 223-270.

Palkopoulou, Eleftheria. (2014). Genetic structure, demographic change and extinction dynamics in the collared lemming and woolly mammoth. Doctoral thesis. Stockholm: Department of Zoology, Stockholm University. 51 pp. [Abstract]

Eleftheria Palkopoulou, Love Dalén, Adrian M. Lister, Sergey Vartanyan, Mikhail Sablin, Andrei Sher, Veronica Nyström Edmark, Mikael D. Brandström, Mietje Germonpré, Ian Barnes and Jessica A. Thomas. (2013). Holarctic genetic structure and range dynamics in the woolly mammoth. Proc. R. Soc. B 280: 20131910.

Palkopoulou, Eleftheria, Lipson, Mark et al. (2018). A comprehensive genomic history of extinct and living elephants. PNAS. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1720554115 [Abstract]

Palkopoulou, Eleftheria, Mallick, Swapan et al. (2015). Complete Genomes Reveal Signatures of Demographic and Genetic Declines in the Woolly Mammoth. Current Biology 25(10): 1395-1400. [Abstract]

Papageorgopoulou, C., Link, K. and Rühli, F. J. (2015). Histology of a Woolly Mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) Preserved in Permafrost, Yamal Peninsula, Northwest Siberia. Anat. Rec. 298: 1059-1071.

Paunović, Gordana, Bogićević, Katarina and Urošević, Aleksandar. (2017). Mandible shape differentiation between [i]Mammuthus trogontherii[/i] and [i]M. primigenius[/i] and mandible shape ontogeny in [i]M. primigenius[/i] specimens from Serbia: A preliminary explorative geometric morphometric study. Quaternary International 443(A): 212-220. [Abstract]

Péan, S. (2001). Mammoth and subsistence practices during the Mid Upper Palaeolithic of Central Europe (Moravia, Czech Republic), pp. 331-336. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Pečnerová, Patrícia. (2018). Genomic analysis of the process leading up to the extinction of the woolly mammoth. Doctoral thesis. [Abstract]

Pečnerová, Patrícia, Palkopoulou, Eleftheria et al. (2017). Mitogenome evolution in the last surviving woolly mammoth population reveals neutral and functional consequences of small population size. Evolution Letters. DOI: 10.1002/evl3.33

Pečnerová, Patrícia et al. (In Press, 2017). Genome-Based Sexing Provides Clues about Behavior and Social Structure in the Woolly Mammoth. Current Biology. DOI: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2017.09.064

Pfeifer, Sebastian J. et al. (2019). Mammoth ivory was the most suitable osseous raw material for the production of Late Pleistocene big game projectile points. Scientific Reports 9: 2303.

Pitulko, Vladimir V. et al. (2016). Early human presence in the Arctic: Evidence from 45,000-year-old mammoth remains. Science 351(6270): 260-263. [Abstract]

Pitul’ko, V.V. 2019. Участок Яна В Янской стоянки: некоторые наблюдения, сделанные в ходераскопок 2015 - 2018 годов (Yana B area of the Yana site: some observations done duringthe excavations of 2015 through 2018). Первобытная археология. Журналмеждисциплинарных исследований [Primeval Archaeology. Journal of Interdisciplinary Research] (1): 64-91.

Pitul’ko, V.V., Basilyan, A.E., Pavlova, E.Y. 2014. The Berelekh mammoth “graveyard”: Newchronological and stratigraphical data from the 2009 field season. Geoarchaeology 29:277 - 299.

Pitul’ko, V., Pavlova, E., Nikolskiy, P. 2015. Mammoth ivory technologies in the UpperPalaeolithic: A case study based on the materials from Yana RHS, northern Yana-Indighirka lowland, Arctic Siberia. World Archaeology 47 (3): 333 – 389.

Plotnikov, V. V. et al. (2015). New data on trunk morphology in the woolly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach). Paleontological Journal 49(2): 200-210. [Abstract]

Pointer, G. (1913). Etude sur le Mammouth de l’Aa. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Francaise 10: 621-646.

Pushkina, Diana et al. (In Press, 2014). Unexpected palaeoecological features of the Middle and Late Pleistocene large herbivores in southwestern Germany revealed by stable isotopic abundances in tooth enamel. Quaternary International. [Abstract]

Puzachenko, A. Yu. et al. (In Press, 2016). The Eurasian mammoth distribution during the second half of the Late Pleistocene and the Holocene: Regional aspects. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2016.05.019 [Abstract]

Rautian, G. S. and Dubrovo, I. A. (2001). Genetic data indicating that [i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i] includes two species, pp. 552-556. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Rekovets, L. (2001). The conditions of existence of Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach in the periglacial zone of Eastern Europe, pp. 341-344. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Reumer JW, ten Broek CM, Galis F. (2014). Extraordinary incidence of cervical ribs indicates vulnerable condition in Late Pleistocene mammoths. PeerJ 2:e318.

Ridush, Bogdan and Popiuk, Yana. (2020). New implications of biostratigraphical dating by large mammals on multi-layered palaeolithic site Molodova V (Ukraine), pp. 110-111. In: Sobczyk A., Ratajczak-Skrzatek U., Kasprzak M., Kotowski A., Marciszak A., Stefaniak K. (eds.). Proceedings of INQUA SEQS 2020 Conference, Wrocław, Poland. University of Wrocław & Polish Geological Society. 124 pp.

Rivals, Florent, Semprebon, Gina and Lister, Adrian. (2012). An examination of dietary diversity patterns in Pleistocene proboscideans (Mammuthus, Palaeoloxodon, and Mammut) from Europe and North America as revealed by dental microwear. Quaternary International, special issue Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 188–195. [Abstract]

Robles, P. Quevedo and de Henell, T. Quevedo. (2001). Two Mammoth sites in La Alta Mixteca (Oaxaca), México, pp. 377. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Roca, Alfred L. (2015). Evolution: The Island of Misfit Mammoths. Current Biology 25(13): R549-R551. [Abstract]

Roca, Alfred L. et al. (2009). Genetic variation at hair length candidate genes in elephants and the extinct woolly mammoth. BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 232.

Rogaev, E. I., Y. K. Moliaka, B. A. Malyarchuk et al. (2006). Complete Mitochondrial Genome and Phylogeny of Pleistocene Mammoth Mammuthus primigenius. PLoS Biology 4: e73.

Rogers, Rebekah L. and Slatkin, Montgomery. (2016). Genomic disintegration in woolly mammoths on Wrangel island. https://arxiv.org/pdf/1606.06336.pdf

Rogers, Rebekah L. and Slatkin, Montgomery. (2017). Excess of genomic defects in a woolly mammoth on Wrangel island. PLoS Genet 13(3): e1006601.

Rohland N, Reich D, Mallick S et al. (2010). Genomic DNA sequences from mastodon and woolly mammoth reveal deep speciation of forest and savanna elephants. PLoS Biology 8: e1000564.

Rompler H, Rohland N, Lalueza-Fox C et al. (2006). Nuclear gene indicates coat-color polymorphism in mammoths. Science 313: 62.

Rosen, B. (1994). Mammoths in ancient Egypt? Nature 369: 364.

Rothfels, Nigel. (2014). Mammoths in the landscape, pp. 10-[22?]. In: Marvin, Gary and McHugh, Susan. Routledge Handbook of Human-Animal Studies. Routledge. 332 pp.

Rountrey, A.N., D.C. Fisher, A.N. Tikhonov, P.A. Kosintsev, P.A. Lazarev, G.G. Boeskorov, and B. Buigues. (2012). Early tooth development, gestation, and season of birth in mammoths. Quaternary International, special issue: Mammoths and Their Relatives 1: Biotopes, Evolution and Human Impact V International Conference, Le Puy-en-Velay, 2010 255: 196-205. [Abstract]

Rufí, I., Solés, A., Soler, J. and Soler, N. (2018). A mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach 1799, Proboscidea) calf tooth from the Mousterian of Arbreda Cave (Serinyà, NE Iberian Peninsula) / Un diente de cría de mamut (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach 1799, Proboscidea) procedente del Musteriense de la Cueva de la Arbreda (Serinyà, NE de la Península Ibérica). Estudios Geológicos julio-diciembre 74(2): e079.

Saarinen, Juha, Eronen, Jussi, Fortelius, Mikael, Seppä, Heikki and Lister, Adrian M. (2016). Patterns of diet and body mass of large ungulates from the Pleistocene of Western Europe, and their relation to vegetation. Palaeontologia Electronica 19.3.32A: 1-58.

Sablin, M. V. and Iltsevich, K. Yu. (2021). Remains of large mammals from the Epigravettian site of Yudinovo. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 325(1): 71-81.

Salsberg, Corey A. (2000). Resurrecting the woolly mammoth: Science, law, ethics, politics and religion. Stanford Technology Law Review 1: 1-30.

Sander PM, Andrassy P. 2006. Lines of arrested growth and long bone histology in Pleistocene large mammals from Germany: what do they tell us about dinosaur physiology? Palaeontographica Abteilung A 277: 143-159.

Scheer, A. (2001). The utilisation of mammoth remains as raw material and its importance for the Gravettian people of the German Danube, pp. 455-459. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Scherler, Laureline et al. (In Press, 2014). Carbon and oxygen stable isotope compositions of late Pleistocene mammal teeth from dolines of Ajoie (Northwestern Switzerland). Quaternary Research. [Abstract]

Schwartz-Narbonne, R. et al. (2015). Solving the woolly mammoth conundrum: amino acid 15N-enrichment suggests a distinct forage or habitat. Scientific Reports 5: 09791.

Schwartz-Narbonne, R. et al. (2015). Reframing the mammoth steppe: Insights from analysis of isotopic niches. Quaternary Science Reviews 215: 1-21. [Abstract]

Scott, K. (2001). Late Middle Pleistocene Mammoths and Elephants of the Thames Valley, Oxfordshire, pp. 247-254. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Scott, Katharine. (2018). The large vertebrates from Picken's Hole, Somerset. Proc. Univ. Bristol Spelaeol. Soc. 27(3): 267-313.

Sedwick, C. (2008). What Killed the Woolly Mammoth? PLoS Biol 6: e99.

Serdyuk, N. V. and Maschenko, E. N. (2018). Parasitic diseases of woolly mammuth (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach, 1799). Proceedings of the Zoological Institute RAS 322(3): 306-314.

SHAPIRO, B. 2015. How To Clone A Mammoth. Princeton University Press, New Jersey. 240 pp.

Shoshani, Jeheskel, Lowenstein, Jerold M., Walz, Daniel A. and Goodman, Morris. (1985). Proboscidean origins of mastodon and woolly mammoth demonstrated immunologically. Paleobiology 11(4): 429-437. [Abstract]

Siegfried, P. (1959). Das Mammut von Ahlen Mammonteus primigenius (Blumenb.). Paläontologische Zeitschrift 33(3): 172-184.

Signore, A. V., Fago, A., Weber, R. E., Morrison, P. R., Brauner, C. J., & Campbell, K. L. (2016). Functional analysis of Steller’s sea cow (Hydrodamalis gigas) hemoglobin provides new insights to cold adaptation. In Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins Conference 2016. [Abstract]

Simakova, A. A. (2001). The vegetation and mammoth distribution during the second half of the Late Pleistocene on the Russian Plain (33-17 ka), pp. 355-358. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Slimak, L., Svendson, J.I., Mangerud, J., Plisson, H., Heggen, H.P., Brugère, A., Pavlov, P.Yu. 2011. Late Mousterian persistence near the Arctic Circle. Science 332: 841-845.

Smith F.A., Lyons S.K., Ernest S.K.M., Jones K.E., Kaufman D.M., Dayan T., Marquet P.A., Brown J.H., Haskell J.P. 2003 Body mass of late Quaternary mammals. Ecology 84(12), 3403-3403.

Smith, Gregory James. (2015). Taxonomic and ecologic implications of mammoth molar morphology as measured via computed tomography (CT). Master Thesis, Pennsylvania State University.

Smith, Gregory James and Graham, Russell W. (2017). The effects of dental wear on impairing mammoth taxonomy: A reappraisal of the Newton mammoth, Bradford County, northeastern Pennsylvania. Quaternary International 443(A): 40-51. [Abstract]

Sokolov, V. E. (ed.). (1982). The Yuribei Mammoth. Moscow: Nauka.

Solovev, T. M. et al. (2021). Investigation of Mammoth Tusk Mammuthus primigenius by Thermogravimetry and X-ray Diffraction Analysis. IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 1079: 042011.

Sommer R.S., Nadachowski A. 2006 Glacial refugia of mammals in Europe: evidence from fossil records. Mammal Review 36(4), 251-265.

Spötl, Christoph, Reimer, Paula J. and Göhlich, Ursula B. (2018). Mammoths inside the Alps during the last glacial period: Radiocarbon constraints from Austria and palaeoenvironmental implications. Quaternary Science Reviews 190: 11-19. [Abstract]

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. (1925). The Adventure of Wrangel Island. New York.

Stefansson, Vilhjalmur. (1926). The Adventure of Wrangel Island. London: Jonathan Cape

Stoetzel, Emmanuelle et al. (In Press, 2016). New data on Late Pleistocene small vertebrates from northern France. Comptes Rendus Palevol. doi:10.1016/j.crpv.2015.12.003 [Abstract]

Stoffel, Eliann W. (2016). [url=https://ecommons.usask.ca/handle/10388/7401]The Kyle Mammoth Project: An Archaeological, Paleoecological and Taphonomic Analysis[/url]. Thesis.

Stone, R. 1999. Cloning the woolly mammoth: (Cover story). Discover 20 (4): 56.

Stone, Richard. (2001). Mammoth: the resurrection of an ice age giant. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing, 242 pp.

Stone, R. 2002. Mammoth: The resurrection of an ice age giant. Cambridge: Perseus Publishing.

Stuart, A. J. (2005). The extinction of woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) and straight-tusked elephant (Palaeoloxodon antiquus) in Europe. Quaternary International 126-128: 171-177.

Stuart, A. J., Kosintsev, P. A., Higham, T. F. G. & Lister, A. M. (2004). Pleistocene to Holocene extinction dynamics in giant deer and woolly mammoth. Nature 431: 684-689.

Stuart, A. J. and Lister, A. M. (2001). The Late Quaternary extinction of woolly mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i]), straight-tusked elephant ([i]Palaeoloxodon antiquus[/i]) and other megafauna in Europe, pp. 722-723. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Stuart, A. J., Sulerzhitsky, L. D., Orlova, L. A., Kuzmin, Y. V. and Lister, A. M. (2002). The latest woolly mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) in Europe and Asia: a review of the current evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 21(14-15): 1559-1569. [Abstract]

Sulerzhitsky, L. D. (1995). Characteristics of radiocarbon chronology of the woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius) of Siberia and north of Eastern Europe. Russian Academy of Sciences. Proceedings of the Zoological Institute St. Petersburg 263: 163-183 (in Russian).

Svoboda, J. (2001). Gravettian mammoth bone deposits in Moravia, pp. 359-362. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Svoboda, Jiří et al. (2019). Pleistocene landslides and mammoth bone deposits: The case of Dolní Věstonice II, Czech Republic. Geoarchaeology. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/gea.21740 [Abstract]

Takahashi, K., Wei, G., Uno, H., Yoneda, M., Jin, C., Sun, C., Zhang, S. and Zhong, B. (2007). AMS 14C chronology of the world's southernmost woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.). Quaternary Science Reviews 26(7-8): 954-957. [Abstract]

Thomas, M. G. (2012). The flickering genes of the last mammoths. Molecular Ecology 21(14): 3379-3381.

Tikhonov, A., Agenbroad, L. and Vartanyan, S. (2003). Comparative analysis of the mammoth populations on Wrangel Island and the Channel Islands. In: reumer, J.W.F., J. de Vos & D. Mol, D. Eds. 2003. advances in mammoth research. Proceedings of the second international mammoth conference rotterdam, 16-20 may 1999. Rotterdam, nmr (deinsea 9): 415-420.

Tikhonov, A. and Vartanyan, S. (2001). Populations of woolly mammoth in North-East Siberia – dwarfing in isolation or last stage of extinction?, pp. 519. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Silvana R. Tridico, Paul Rigby, K. Paul Kirkbride, James Haile, Michael Bunce. (2014). Megafaunal split ends: microscopical characterisation of hair structure and function in extinct woolly mammoth and woolly rhino. Quaternary Science Reviews 83: 68-75. [Abstract]

Turvey, Samuel T. et al. (2013). Holocene survival of Late Pleistocene megafauna in China: a critical review of the evidence. Quaternary Science Reviews 76: 156-166. [Abstract]

Ukkonen, P. et al. (2011). Woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius Blum.) and its environment in northern Europe during the last glaciation. Quaternary Science Reviews 30(5-6): 693-712. [Abstract]

Ukraintseva, V. V. (1985). Forage of the large herbivorous mammals of the epoch of the mammoth. Acta Zoologica Fennica 170: 215-220.

Ukraintseva, V. V. (1993). Vegetation Cover and Environment of the ‘Mammoth Epoch’ in Siberia - Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, Hot Springs.

Ukraintseva, V. V., Agenbroad, L. G. and Mead, J. I. (1996). A paleoenvironmental reconstruction of the ‘Mammoth Epoch’ of Siberia - in: West, F.H. (ed.). American Beginnings. The Prehistory and Palaeoecology of Beringia, The University of Chicago Press, Chicago: 129-136.

Valente, A. (1983). Hair structure of the wooly mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius and the modern elephants, Elephas maximus and Loxodonta africana. Journal of Zoology London 199: 271-274.

Valoch, K. 1988. Die Erforschung der Kůlna-Höhle 1961 – 1976. Brno, Anthropos Band 24 (N.S.16).

van der Made, J. and Mazo, A. V. (2001). Spanish Pleistocene Proboscidean diversity as a function of climate, pp. 214-218. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

van Geel, B., (2005). The last meal of the Yukagir Mammoth. In: D. Mol (editor). The Yukagir Mammoth - an animal of the cold steppe. EXPO 2005 Aichi, Japan, p. 46-49. (in Japanese).

van Geel, B. (2010). Frozen mammoth feces from Alaska and the evidence for coprophagy. Abstracts 4th Workshop Non-Pollen Palynomorphs, p. 10.

van Geel, B., A. Aptroot, C. Baittinger, H.H. Birks, I.D. Bull, H.B. Cross, R.P. Evershed, et al. (2008). The ecological implications of a Yakutian mammoth’s last meal. Quaternary Research 69(3): 361–376. [Abstract]

van Geel, B., Aptroot, A., Birks, H.H., Bull, I.D., Evershed, R.P., Mol, D., Nierop, K.G.J., Pals, J.P., van Tienderen,P.H. and van Reenen, G., (2005). Plant remains in the Yukagir Mammoth dung and an environmental reconstruction. Short Papers and Abstracts 2nd World of Elephants Congress, 22-25 September 2005, Mammoth Site of Hot Springs, South Dakota, p. 193-194.

van Geel, B., Birks, H., Aptroot, A., Baittinger,C., Mol, D., Pals, J.P., Shoshani, J., van Reenen, G., Bull, I., Evershed, R., Nierop, K., Tikhonov, A. and van Tienderen, P. (2005). Environmental reconstruction based on the Yukagir Mammoth's lastmeal. Proceedings International Symposium on Yukagir Mammoth. Aichi, Japan, 18 June 2005, p. 13-14.

B. van Geel, D.C. Fisher, A.N. Rountrey, J. van Arkel, J.F. Duivenvoorden, A.M. Nieman, G.B.A. van Reenen, A.N. Tikhonov, B. Buigues & B. Gravendeel (2011). Palaeo-environmental and dietary analysis of intestinal contents of a mammoth calf (Yamal Peninsula, northwest Siberia). Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(27-28), 3935-3946. [Abstract]

B. van Geel, R.D. Guthrie, J.G. Altmann, P. Broekens, I.D. Bull, F.L. Gill, B. Jansen, A.M. Nieman & B. Gravendeel (2011). Mycological evidence of coprophagy from the feces of an Alaskan Late Glacial mammoth. Quaternary Science Reviews, 30(17-18), 2289-2303. [Abstract]

van Geel, B., R.D. Guthrie, D.C. Fisher, J.G. Altmann, P. Broekens, I.D. Bull, F.L. Gill, et al. (2010). Paleoecological studies of mammoth and mastodon feces and the evidence for coprophagy. Quaternaire, Hors série 3: 98–99. (extended abstract)

van Geel, B., Pals, J.P., van Reenen, G. and Mol, D. (2004). Plant remains in theYukagir Mammoth dung and an environmental reconstruction. Proceedings of International Scientific Conference The Yukagir Mammoth, outcome of the first stage of work. 17-18 November 2004, Yakutsk, p. 58-59.

van Geel, B., Pals, J.P., van Reenen, G. and Mol, D. (2007). Plant remains in the Yukagir mammoth dung and environmental reconstruction. In: Boeskorov, G.G., Tikhonov, A.N., and Zuzuki, N., The Yukagir Mammoth, St.Petersburg, p. 89-93 (in Russian and in English).

van Geel, B., Pals,J.P., van Reenen, G., Mol, D., van Tienderen, P., Kuperus, P., Gravendeel, B., Cross, H.B. and Birks, H.H. (2008). poster abstract: Plant remains in the Yukagir Mammoth dung and an environmental reconstruction. Abstracts 9th Nederlands Aardwetenschappelijk Congres, 18 and 19 March 2008, Veldhoven, The Netherlands. see https://www.nac9.nl/abstract_list.php?id=270

Van Kolfschoten, T. H. and Laban, G. (1995). Pleistocene terrestrial mammal fauns from the North Sea. Mededelingen Rijks geologische Dienst 52: 135-152.

Vanwezer, Nils et al. (In Press, 2021). Hunting, herding, and people in the rock art of Mongolia: New discoveries in the Gobi-Altai Mountains. Archaeological Research in Asia. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ara.2021.100267

Vartanyan, S. L., Arslanov, K. A., Karhu, J. A., Possnert, G. and Sulerzhitsky, L. D. (2008). Collection of radiocarbon dates on the mammoths (Mammuthus primigenius) and other genera of Wrangel Island, northeast Siberia, Russia. Quaternary Research 70(1): 51-59.

Vartanyan, S. L., Arslanov, K. A., Tertychnaya, T. V. and Chernov, S. B. (1995). Radiocarbon dating evidence for mammoths on Wrangel Island, Arctic Ocean, until 2000BC. Radiocarbon 37(1): 1-6.

Vartanyan, S. L., V.E. Garutt, and A. V. Sher. (1993). Holcene dwarf mammoths from Wrangel Island in Siberian Artic. Nature 362: 337-340.

Vartanyan SL, Tikhonov AN, Orlova LA (2005) The dynamic of mammoth distribution in the last refugia in Beringia. In: 2nd World of Elephants Congress. Short Papers and Abstracts (eds Agenbroad LD, Symington RL), pp. 195-196. The Mammoth Site, Hot Springs, South Dakota.

Vasil’ev, Sergey A. (2001). Man and Mammoth in Pleistocene Siberia, pp. 363-366. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Vasil’ev, Sergey A. (2003). Faunal exploitation, subsistence practices and Pleistocene extinctions in Paleolithic Siberia. In: Reumer, J. W. F, De Vos, J. and Mol, D. (eds.). Advances in Mammoth Research (Proceedings of the Second International Mammoth Conference, Rotterdam, May 16-20 1999). DEINSEA 9: 513-556.

Velichko, A. A. and Zelikson, E. M. (2001). Landscape, climate and mammoth food resources in the East European plain during the Late Paleolithic, pp. 724-727. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Veltre D, Yesner D, Crossen K, Graham R, Coltrain J (2004) Patterns of faunal extinction and paleoclimatic change from mid-Holocene mammoth and polar bear remains, Pribilof Islands, Alaska. Quaternary Research, 70, 40–50.

Vereshchagin, N. K. (1979). Why Did the Mammoths Become Extinct. Moscow: Nauka. 196 pp. (in Russian)

Vereshchagin, N. K., and Mikhelson, V. M. (1981). Magadan baby mammoth, Mammuthus primigenius (Blumenbach). Leningrad: Nauka. (in Russian)

Wang, Yue et al. (2018). Mechanistic modeling of environmental drivers of woolly mammoth carrying capacity declines on St. Paul Island. Ecology 99(12): 2721-2730. [Abstract]

Wang, Yue et al. (2020). Caught in a bottleneck: Habitat loss for woolly mammoths in central North America and the ice‐free corridor during the last deglaciation. Global Ecology and Biogeography. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/geb.13238 [Abstract]

Wegner, T. (1933). Das Geologische Museum der Universität Münster. Das schöne Münster, 5: 145-160.

Wilczyński, Jarosław, Barbara MIÊKINA, Grzegorz LIPECKI, Lembi LÕUGAS, Adrian MARCISZAK, Barbara RZEBIK-KOWALSKA, Ewa STWORZEWICZ, Zbigniew SZYNDLAR, and Krzysztof WERTZ. (2012). Faunal remains from Borsuka Cave – an example of local climate variability during Late Pleistocene in southern Poland. Acta zoologica cracoviensia 55(2): 131-155. ["Fig. 6.Borsuka Cave, woolly mammoth Mammuthus primigenius fragment of the rib with numerous, parallel cut marks (scale bar: 10 cm)."]

Wilczyński, Jarosław et al. (2019). Mammoth hunting strategies during the Late Gravettian in Central Europe as determined from case studies of Milovice I (Czech Republic) and Kraków Spadzista (Poland). Quaternary Science Reviews 223: 105919. [Abstract]

Wilmut, I, AE Schnieke, J Schnieke, A Mcwhir, J Kind, and KHS Campbell. 1997. Viable offspring derived from fetal and adult mammalian cells. Nature 385 (6619): 810-813.

Wojtal, Piotr. (2001). The woolly mammoth ([i]Mammuthus primigenius[/i]) remains from the Upper Palaeolithic site Kraków Spadzista Street (B), pp. 367-372. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Wojtal, P. (2007). Zooarchaeological Studies of the Late Pleistocene Sites in Poland. Kraków: Polish Academy of Sciences Institute of Systematics and Evolution of Animals.

Wojtal, Piotr and Cyrek, K. (2001). The Upper Palaeolithic mammoth site at Halich (Ukraine), pp. 373-375. In: Cavarretta, C., Gioia, P., Mussi, M. and Palombo, M. R. (eds.). The World of Elephants – International Congress, Rome. Proceedings of the 1st international congress – Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche, Rome. [automatic download]

Wojtal, Piotr, Haynes, Gary et al. (2019). The earliest direct evidence of mammoth hunting in Central Europe – The Kraków Spadzista site (Poland). Quaternary Science Reviews 213: 162-166. [Abstract]

Wojtal, Piotr and Wilczyński, Jarosław. (In Press, 2015). Hunters of the giants: Woolly mammoth hunting during the Gravettian in Central Europe. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2015.05.040 [Abstract]

Wojtal, Piotr et al. (In Press, 2016). The scene of a spectacular feast (part II): Animal remains from Dolní Věstonice II, the Czech Republic. Quaternary International. doi:10.1016/j.quaint.2016.03.022 [Abstract]

Workman C, Dalen L, Vartanyan S et al. (2011). Population-level genotyping of coat colour polymorphism in woolly mammoth (Mammuthus primigenius). Quaternary Science Reviews 30(17-18): 2304-2308. [Abstract]

Wray, Britt. (2017). Rise of the Necrofauna: The Science, Ethics, and Risks of De-Extinction. Greystone Books. 288 pp.

Yamagata, Kazuo et al. (2019). Signs of biological activities of 28,000-year-old mammoth nuclei in mouse oocytes visualized by live-cell imaging. Scientific Reports 9: 4050.

Yates, James A. Fellows et al. (2017). Central European Woolly Mammoth Population Dynamics: Insights from Late Pleistocene Mitochondrial Genomes. Scientific Reports 7: 17714. [Supplementary information]

Yravedra, J., Panera, J., Rubio-Jara, S., Manzano, I., Expósito, A., Pérez-González, A., Soto, E. and López-Recio, M. (2014). Neanderthal and Mammuthus interactions at EDAR Culebro 1 (Madrid, Spain). Journal of Archaeological Science 42: 500-508. [either M. intermedius or M. primigenius]

Yuan, Y., T-J. Shen, P. Gupta, N.T. Ho, V. Simplaceanu, T.C.S. Tam, M. Hofreiter, A. Cooper, K.L. Campbell and C. Ho. (2011). A biochemical-biophysical study of hemoglobins from woolly mammoth, Asian elephant, and humans. Biochemistry 50(34): 7350-7360.

Zalensky, V.V. 1903. Osteological and odontographic studies on the mammoth (Elephas primigenius Blum.), and the elephants (El. Indicus L. and El. Africanus Blum.). Scientific results of the Imperial Academy of Sciences expedition to excavate the mammoth carcass found by the Beresovka river in 1901. Vol. 1, 1–124. Imperial Academy of Sciences, St. Petersburg.

Zhang, Hucai et al. (2018). OSL and AMS 14C age of the most complete mammoth fossil skeleton from northeastern China and its paleoclimate significance. Radiocarbon. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/RDC.2018.48 [Abstract]

Ziegler, R. (1994). Das Mammut (Mammuthus primigenius Blumenbach) von Siegsdorf bei Traunstein (Bayern) und seine Begleitfauna. Münchner Geowissenschaftliche Abhandlungen 26: 49-80.

Zilio, Leandro et al. (2021). Examining Neanderthal and carnivore occupations of Teixoneres Cave (Moià, Barcelona, Spain) using archaeostratigraphic and intra-site spatial analysis. Sci Rep. 11: 4339.

https://www.therepublic.com/view/story/94e1cbe395924d29b2796d29f71b48d9/IA--Mammoths-Iowa

https://www.academia.edu/1664417/Phylogeography_of_the_woolly_mammoth_molecular_divergence_in_space_and_time

https://www.kpopstarz.com/articles/34155/20130711/woolly-mammoth-found-siberia-extinct-animal.htm

https://www.ibtimes.co.uk/articles/508643/20130924/woolly-mammoth-cloning-extinct-trunk-discovered-living.htm

https://pag.confex.com/pag/xxiii/webprogram/Paper14423.html

https://siberiantimes.com/science/casestudy/news/n0154-first-attempt-fails-to-extract-nucleus-from-woolly-mammoth-cell-for-cloning/

https://twilightbeasts.wordpress.com/2014/11/25/buttercup-the-mammoth/

https://twilightbeasts.wordpress.com/2014/07/18/mammoths/

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-essex-39445660

https://www.dailymail.co.uk/wires/pa/article-5094051/Mammoth-sale-Four-skeletons-tipped-make-400-000.html

Extinct, tv show, season 1, episode 5, "The Mammoth", originally aired 23 October 2001, see here: https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0297556/episodes?ref_=tt_ep_epl

https://orbi.uliege.be/handle/2268/224375

https://www.firstpost.com/tech/science/woolly-mammoth-and-rhino-remains-dug-up-from-under-england-highway-during-repairs-5446271.html

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/12476/mammuthus-primigenius-woolly-mammoth

https://www.mirror.co.uk/news/uk-news/woolly-mammoth-tooth-40000-years-14081528

https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Matthew_Harrington5/publication/333624387_IDENTIFYING_DIETARY_AND_MIGRATORY_PATTERNS_OF_ILLINOIS_MAMMUTHUS_PRIMIGENIUS_POPULATIONS_USING_ISOTOPE_ANALYSIS_OF_CARBON_OXYGEN_AND_STRONTIUM/links/5db3818b92851c577ec35ed1/IDENTIFYING-DIETARY-AND-MIGRATORY-PATTERNS-OF-ILLINOIS-MAMMUTHUS-PRIMIGENIUS-POPULATIONS-USING-ISOTOPE-ANALYSIS-OF-CARBON-OXYGEN-AND-STRONTIUM.pdf

https://massivesci.com/notes/dna-recovery-technique-sequencing-woolly-mammoth-horse-ancient/

https://anthropology.as.dev.artsci.virginia.edu/portentous-effigy-life-and-death-brooks-hall-woolly-mammoth

 

<< Back to the Proboscideans database