The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database

Mylodon darwinii Owen (year?)

Darwin's ground sloth, Milodon



Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Synonym/s: Milodon darwini (orth. error used by (Prates & perez, 2021))


Conservation Status

Last record: Late Pleistocene or Holocene



South America












Barnett, R. and Sylvester, S. (2010). Does the ground sloth, Mylodon darwinii, still survive in South America? Deposits Magazine 23: 8-11.

Baskin J.A. 2005 Carnivora from the late Miocene Love Bone Bed of Florida. Bulletin of the Florida Museum of Natural History 45(4), 413-434.

Borrero, Luis Alberto and Martin, Fabiana María. (2012). Taphonomic observations on ground sloth bone and dung from Cueva del Milodón, Ultima Esperanza, Chile: 100 years of research history. Quaternary International 278: 3-11. [Abstract]

Brambilla, Luciano and Ibarra, Damián A. (2018). The occipital region of late Pleistocene Mylodontidae of Argentina. Boletín del Instituto de Fisiografía y Geología 88: @-@.

Andrew A. Clack, Ross D.E. MacPhee, Hendrik N. Poinar. (2012). Mylodon darwinii DNA sequences from ancient fecal hair shafts. Annals of Anatomy - Anatomischer Anzeiger 194(1): 26-30. [Abstract]

Delsuc, Frédéric et al. (2018). Resolving the phylogenetic position of Darwin's extinct ground sloth (Mylodon darwinii) using mitogenomic and nuclear exon data. Proc. R. Soc. B 285(1878): 20180214.

Emerling, Christopher A. and Springer, Mark S. (2015). Genomic evidence for rod monochromacy in sloths and armadillos suggests early subterranean history for Xenarthra. Proceedings of the Royal Society, ser. B 282(1800). DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.2192 [Abstract]

Richard A. Fariña, P. Sebastián Tambusso, Luciano Varela, Ada Czerwonogora, Mariana Di Giacomo, Marcos Musso, Roberto Bracco and Andrés Gascue. (2014). Arroyo del Vizcaíno, Uruguay: a fossil-rich 30-ka-old megafaunal locality with cut-marked bones. Proc. R. Soc. B 281(1774): 20132211.

Fernicola, J. C., Vizcaino, F, and de Iuliis, G. (2009). The Fossil Mammals collected by Charles Darwin in South America during his travels on board the HMS Beagle. Revista de la Asociatión Geológica Argentina 64(1): 147-159.

Gallo, V. et al. (2013). Distributional patterns of herbivore megamammals during the Late Pleistocene of South America. An. Acad. Bras. Ciênc. 85(2): 533-546.

Alex D. Greenwood,1 Jose Castresana,2 Gertraud Feldmaier-Fuchs, and Svante Pa¨ a¨ bo

Greenwood, Alex D., Castresana, Jose, Feldmaier-Fuchs, Gertraud and Pääbo, Svante. (2000). A molecular phylogeny of two extinct sloths. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 18(1): 94-103.

Haro, José A., Tauber, Adan A. and Krapovickas, Jerónimo M. (2016). The manus of [i]Mylodon darwinii[/i] Owen (Tardigrada, Mylodontidae) and its phylogenetic implications. Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology. DOI: 10.1080/02724634.2016.1188824 [Abstract]

Haro, José A., Tauber, Adan A. and Krapovickas, Jerónimo M. (2017). Thoracic member (pectoral girdle and forelimb) bones of [i]Mylodon darwinii[/i] Owen (Xenarthra, Mylodontidae) from the Late Pleistocene of Central Argentina and their phylogenetic implications. Paläontologische Zeitschrift. doi:10.1007/s12542-017-0350-z

Hofreiter, Michael, Betancourt, Julio L., Sbriller, Alicia Pelliza, Markgraf, Vera and McDonald, H. Gregory. (2003). Phylogeny, diet, and habitat of an extinct ground sloth from Cuchillo Curá, NeuqueĊ„ Province, southwest Argentina. Quaternary Research 59: 364-378.

Höss, Matthias, Dilling, A., Currant, A. and Pääbo, S. (1996). Molecular phylogeny of the extinct ground sloth Mylodon darwinii. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 93: 181-185.

Hughes, Jonathan J. (2016). Resolving the xenarthran phylogeny using nuclear loci. Thesis, McMaster University. xi + 73 pp.

Hunt, Adrian P. and Lucas, Spencer G. (2018). The record of sloth coprolites in North and South America: implications for terminal Pleistocene extinctions. New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science Bulletin 79: 277-298.

Lönnberg, E. (1900). On a Remarkable Piece of Skin from Cueva Eberhardt, Last Hope Inlet, Patagonia. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London [1900]: 379-384.

Lopes, Renato Pereira et al. (2021). The Santa Vitória Alloformation: an update on a Pleistocene fossil-rich unit in Southern Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Geology 51(1): e2020065.

Markgraf, V. (1985). Late Pleistocene faunal extinctions in southern Patagonia. Science 228: 1110-1112.

McDonald, H. Gregory. (2018). An Overview of the Presence of Osteoderms in Sloths:Implications for Osteoderms as a Plesiomorphic Character of the Xenarthra. J. Mammal Evol. 25: 485-493.

Moreno, Francesco P. (1899). Note on the Discovery of Miolania and of Glossotherium (Neomylodon) in Patagonia. Geological Magazine Decade IV. Volume VI, no. IX: 25-29.

Oren, D. C. (2001). Does the Endangered Xenarthran Fauna of Amazonia Include Remnant Ground Sloths? Edentata [2001]: 2-5.

Prates, Luciano and Perez, S. Ivan. (2021). Late Pleistocene South American megafaunal extinctions associated with rise of Fishtail points and human population. Nature Communications 12: 2175.

Slater, Graham J. et al. (2016). Evolutionary Relationships among Extinct and Extant Sloths: The Evidence of Mitogenomes and Retroviruses. Genome Biol. Evol. 8(3): 607-621.

Steadman, David W. et al. (2005). Asynchronous extinction of late Quaternary sloths on continents and islands. PNAS 102(33): 11763-11768.

Steele J., Politis G. 2009 AMS 14C dating of early human occupation of southern South America. Journal of Archaeological Science 36(2), 419-429.

Varela, Luciano and Fariña, Richard A. (In Press, 2016). Co-occurrence of mylodontid sloths and insights on their potential distributions during the late Pleistocene. Quaternary Research. doi:10.1016/j.yqres.2015.11.009 [Abstract]

Varela, Luciano, Tambusso, P. Sebastián, Patiño, Santiago J., Di Giacomo, Mariana and Fariña, Richard A. (2017). Potential Distribution of Fossil Xenarthrans in South America during the Late Pleistocene: co-Occurrence and Provincialism. Journal of Mammalian Evolution. [Abstract]


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