The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database


Tokea orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861)

Schmarda's worm

 

 

Taxonomy & Nomenclature

Original description:

Schmarda, Ludwig Karl. (1861). Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erdr [sic, should be Erde] 1853 bis 1857 von Ludwig K. Schmarda. Erster Band. Turbellarien, Rotatorien und Anneliden. Zweite hälfte. Mit 22 colorirten kupfertafeln und mehreren hundert figuren in holzschnitt. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

 

Synonym/s: Hypogaeon orthostichon Schmarda, 1861 (original combination); Lumbricus orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861) [used by Fletcher, 1886:534]; Megascolides orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861)

 

Conservation Status

Last record 1854 (Blakemore, 2017)

IUCN RedList status: Extinct

 

The first native species of annelid to be described from the Australasian region. Several exotic species appear to have been described prior. Known only from a single specimen collected sometime during Schmarda's five week visit to the area around Mt. Wellington. There has been some debate over the country of origin (i.e. New Zealand vs. Tasmania, Australia) as both have a Mt. Wellington, however this now appears to have been satisfactorily resolved in favour of Schmarda's original locality.

 

Distribution

Mt Wellington (=Maunga Rei =Maungarei), Auckland, North Island, New Zealand

 

Biology

 

 

Hypodigm

 

 

Media

 

 

References

Original scientific description:

Schmarda, Ludwig Karl. (1861). Neue wirbellose Thiere beobachtet und gesammelt auf einer Reise um die Erdr [sic, should be Erde] 1853 bis 1857 von Ludwig K. Schmarda. Erster Band. Turbellarien, Rotatorien und Anneliden. Zweite hälfte. Mit 22 colorirten kupfertafeln und mehreren hundert figuren in holzschnitt. Verlag von Wilhelm Engelmann, Leipzig.

 

Other references:

Benham, W. B. (1905). On some Edible and other New Species of Earthworms from the North Island of New Zealand. Proceedings of the Zoological Society of London. 2: 220-263.

Benham, W. B. (1905). Some Earthworms from the North Island of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand 37: 281-285.

Benham, W. B. (1906). Additional Notes on the Earthworms of the North Island of New Zealand. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 38: 239-244.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2000). Tasmanian Earthworms CD-ROM Monograph with Review of World Families. VermEcology, Kippax, Canberra.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2011). Further records of non-cryptic New Zealand earthworms. ZooKeys 160: 23-46. doi: 10.3897/zookeys.160.2354.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2012). On Schmarda’s lost earthworm and some newly found New Zealand species (Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Lumbricidae, Acanthodrilidae, Octochaetidae, & Megascolecidae s. stricto). Journal of Species Research 1(2): 105-132.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2013). Another worm bites the dust – On an extinct New Zealand earthworm with conservation status of other taxa reviewed. International Oligochaeta Taxonomy Meeting VI (IOTM6) 1(1): 1.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2014). Miscellaneous earthworm types in the Natural History Museum, London (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megadrilacea: Eudrilidae, Lumbricidae, Megascolecidae, Moniligastridae, Octochaetidae). Opusc. Zool. Budapest 45(2): 119-155.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2017). Tokea orthostichon. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017: e.T103192401A103193535. https://dx.doi.org/10.2305/IUCN.UK.2017-2.RLTS.T103192401A103193535.en. Downloaded on 19 October 2017.

Blakemore, Robert J. (2019). Redescription of extinct New Zealand earthworm: Tokea orthostichon (Schmarda, 1861) (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megadrilacea, Megascolecidae). Bull. Kanagawa Prefect. Mus. (Nat. Sci.) 48: 61-68.

Lee, K. E. (1959). The earthworm fauna of New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific & Industrial Research Bulletin. 130: 1-486.

Lee, K. E. (1961). Interactions between native and introduced earthworms. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society. 8: 60-62.

Lee, K. E. (1962). New Zealand Earthworms in the Collections of the British Museum (Natural History). Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 2(20): 169-180.

Michaelsen, W. (1917). Results of Dr E. Mjoberg’s Swedish Expedition to Australia 1910−1913. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar. 52(13): 1-74.

Smith, W. W. (1894). Further Notes on New Zealand Earthworms. Transactions and Proceedings of the Royal Society of New Zealand. 26: 155-175.

Ude, H. (1905). Terricole Oligochäten von den Inseln der Südsee und von verschiedenen andern Gebieten der Erde. Zeitschrift für wissenschaftliche Zoologie 83: 405-501.

https://extinctanimals.proboards.com/thread/22706/tokea-orthostichon

 

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